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The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study.

Arnold SM, Angerer J, Boogaard PJ, Hughes MF, O'Lone RB, Robison SH, Schnatter AR - Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (2013)

Bottom Line: The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data.Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results.While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI 48674, USA. smarnold@dow.com

ABSTRACT
Abstract A framework of "Common Criteria" (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m(3)), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10(-5) excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m(3)). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.

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Reported urinary ttMA concentrations (central tendency) for urban workers compared to the ACGIH BEI. Each bar represents a separate exposure population. ND = not definded.
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f7: Reported urinary ttMA concentrations (central tendency) for urban workers compared to the ACGIH BEI. Each bar represents a separate exposure population. ND = not definded.

Mentions: Urinary SPMA and ttMA concentrations for urban workers (i.e. those that are exposed to benzene indirectly during their job tasks (e.g. taxi drivers, gasoline attendants, traffic policemen, temple workers burning incense)) were compared to the corresponding ACGIH BEI value corresponding to the ACGIH TLV of 0.5 ppm (Figures 6 and 7). The central tendency values for SPMA (Ayi Fanou et al., 2006; Barbieri et al., 2004; Bono et al., 2005; Carrieri et al., 2006; Crebelli et al., 2001; Manini et al., 2006, 2008; Navasumrit et al., 2008) and ttMA (Barbieri et al., 2004; Carrieri et al., 2006; Chanvaivit et al., 2007; Crebelli et al., 2001; Manini et al., 2006, 2008; Navasumrit et al., 2008; Violante et al., 2003) are well below the ACGIH BEI (with the exception of ttMA for temple workers exposed to incense burning; Navasumrit et al., 2008), and are generally in the same range as for the general population shown in Figure 5.Figure 6.


The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study.

Arnold SM, Angerer J, Boogaard PJ, Hughes MF, O'Lone RB, Robison SH, Schnatter AR - Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (2013)

Reported urinary ttMA concentrations (central tendency) for urban workers compared to the ACGIH BEI. Each bar represents a separate exposure population. ND = not definded.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585443&req=5

f7: Reported urinary ttMA concentrations (central tendency) for urban workers compared to the ACGIH BEI. Each bar represents a separate exposure population. ND = not definded.
Mentions: Urinary SPMA and ttMA concentrations for urban workers (i.e. those that are exposed to benzene indirectly during their job tasks (e.g. taxi drivers, gasoline attendants, traffic policemen, temple workers burning incense)) were compared to the corresponding ACGIH BEI value corresponding to the ACGIH TLV of 0.5 ppm (Figures 6 and 7). The central tendency values for SPMA (Ayi Fanou et al., 2006; Barbieri et al., 2004; Bono et al., 2005; Carrieri et al., 2006; Crebelli et al., 2001; Manini et al., 2006, 2008; Navasumrit et al., 2008) and ttMA (Barbieri et al., 2004; Carrieri et al., 2006; Chanvaivit et al., 2007; Crebelli et al., 2001; Manini et al., 2006, 2008; Navasumrit et al., 2008; Violante et al., 2003) are well below the ACGIH BEI (with the exception of ttMA for temple workers exposed to incense burning; Navasumrit et al., 2008), and are generally in the same range as for the general population shown in Figure 5.Figure 6.

Bottom Line: The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data.Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results.While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI 48674, USA. smarnold@dow.com

ABSTRACT
Abstract A framework of "Common Criteria" (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m(3)), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10(-5) excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m(3)). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus