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The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study.

Arnold SM, Angerer J, Boogaard PJ, Hughes MF, O'Lone RB, Robison SH, Schnatter AR - Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (2013)

Bottom Line: The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data.Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results.While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI 48674, USA. smarnold@dow.com

ABSTRACT
Abstract A framework of "Common Criteria" (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m(3)), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10(-5) excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m(3)). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.

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Reported blood benzene concentrations (central tendency) for the general population compared to the benzene biomonitoring equivalent value based upon USEPA non-cancer and cancer benchmarks. Each bar represents a separate exposure population.
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f3: Reported blood benzene concentrations (central tendency) for the general population compared to the benzene biomonitoring equivalent value based upon USEPA non-cancer and cancer benchmarks. Each bar represents a separate exposure population.

Mentions: The central tendencies of blood benzene concentrations from several targeted random studies of non-occupationally exposed individuals (Ashley et al., 1994; Bergamaschi et al., 1999; Brugnone et al., 1989a,b; Carrer et al., 2000; Hajimiragha et al., 1989; Kirkeleit et al., 2006a,b; Kivisto et al., 1997; Kok and Ong, 1994; Lin et al., 2007; Navasumrit et al., 2005, 2008; Ong et al., 1996; Perbellini et al., 1988, 2003; Romieu et al., 1999) were plotted with the results from CDC NHANES studies (Ashley et al., 1994; CDC, 2009; Lin et al., 2007) and compared to the benzene biomonitoring equivalent value relating to USEPA RfC and cancer slope factor (Figure 3). These studies represent individuals from North America, Europe and Asia.Figure 3.


The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study.

Arnold SM, Angerer J, Boogaard PJ, Hughes MF, O'Lone RB, Robison SH, Schnatter AR - Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (2013)

Reported blood benzene concentrations (central tendency) for the general population compared to the benzene biomonitoring equivalent value based upon USEPA non-cancer and cancer benchmarks. Each bar represents a separate exposure population.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585443&req=5

f3: Reported blood benzene concentrations (central tendency) for the general population compared to the benzene biomonitoring equivalent value based upon USEPA non-cancer and cancer benchmarks. Each bar represents a separate exposure population.
Mentions: The central tendencies of blood benzene concentrations from several targeted random studies of non-occupationally exposed individuals (Ashley et al., 1994; Bergamaschi et al., 1999; Brugnone et al., 1989a,b; Carrer et al., 2000; Hajimiragha et al., 1989; Kirkeleit et al., 2006a,b; Kivisto et al., 1997; Kok and Ong, 1994; Lin et al., 2007; Navasumrit et al., 2005, 2008; Ong et al., 1996; Perbellini et al., 1988, 2003; Romieu et al., 1999) were plotted with the results from CDC NHANES studies (Ashley et al., 1994; CDC, 2009; Lin et al., 2007) and compared to the benzene biomonitoring equivalent value relating to USEPA RfC and cancer slope factor (Figure 3). These studies represent individuals from North America, Europe and Asia.Figure 3.

Bottom Line: The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data.Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results.While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI 48674, USA. smarnold@dow.com

ABSTRACT
Abstract A framework of "Common Criteria" (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m(3)), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10(-5) excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m(3)). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus