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Tristetraprolin mediates radiation-induced TNF-α production in lung macrophages.

Ray D, Shukla S, Allam US, Helman A, Ramanand SG, Tran L, Bassetti M, Krishnamurthy PM, Rumschlag M, Paulsen M, Sun L, Shanley TP, Ljungman M, Nyati MK, Zhang M, Lawrence TS - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: To study the in vivo relevance, mouse lungs were irradiated with a single dose (15 Gy) and assessed at varying times for TTP alterations.In conclusion, irradiation of lung macrophages causes TTP inactivation via p38-mediated phosphorylation and proteasome-mediated degradation, leading to TNF-α production.These findings suggest that agents capable of blocking TTP phosphorylation or stabilizing TTP after irradiation could decrease RILT.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America. dipray@umich.edu

ABSTRACT
The efficacy of radiation therapy for lung cancer is limited by radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT). Although tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) signaling plays a critical role in RILT, the molecular regulators of radiation-induced TNF-α production remain unknown. We investigated the role of a major TNF-α regulator, Tristetraprolin (TTP), in radiation-induced TNF-α production by macrophages. For in vitro studies we irradiated (4 Gy) either a mouse lung macrophage cell line, MH-S or macrophages isolated from TTP knockout mice, and studied the effects of radiation on TTP and TNF-α levels. To study the in vivo relevance, mouse lungs were irradiated with a single dose (15 Gy) and assessed at varying times for TTP alterations. Irradiation of MH-S cells caused TTP to undergo an inhibitory phosphorylation at Ser-178 and proteasome-mediated degradation, which resulted in increased TNF-α mRNA stabilization and secretion. Similarly, MH-S cells treated with TTP siRNA or macrophages isolated from ttp (-/-) mice had higher basal levels of TNF-α, which was increased minimally after irradiation. Conversely, cells overexpressing TTP mutants defective in undergoing phosphorylation released significantly lower levels of TNF-α. Inhibition of p38, a known kinase for TTP, by either siRNA or a small molecule inhibitor abrogated radiation-induced TNF-α release by MH-S cells. Lung irradiation induced TTP(Ser178) phosphorylation and protein degradation and a simultaneous increase in TNF-α production in C57BL/6 mice starting 24 h post-radiation. In conclusion, irradiation of lung macrophages causes TTP inactivation via p38-mediated phosphorylation and proteasome-mediated degradation, leading to TNF-α production. These findings suggest that agents capable of blocking TTP phosphorylation or stabilizing TTP after irradiation could decrease RILT.

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p38 kinase controls radiation-induced TTP phosphorylation and TNF-α secretion by MH-S cells.(A) CHO cells overexpressing TTP were treated with 4 Gy in the presence of either DMSO (vehicle control) or p38 inhibitor (SB203580), or PI3K inhibitor (Wortmannin), or GSK3ß inhibitors (SB415286, SB216763). Cell lysates were prepared 10 min post-radiation and immunoblotted using indicated antibodies. (B) MH-S cells were pretreated with either p38 or GSK3ß inhibitors as above and cell lysates were prepared 10 min post-radiation and immunoblotted with the indicated antibodies. (C) MH-S cells were irradiated with 4 Gy in the presence or absence of a p38 inhibitor (SB203580), and radiation-induced TNF-α secretion was quantified using ELISA. (D) MH-S cells were treated with either control (C) or TTP (T) siRNA. 24 h post-transfection, cells were either left un-irradiated or radiated with 4 Gy. Culture supernatants were collected 48 h post-radiation, and TNF-α levels were quantified. In the inset, the effectiveness of p38 siRNA is shown in cell lysates isolated from C or T siRNA treated cells.
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pone-0057290-g005: p38 kinase controls radiation-induced TTP phosphorylation and TNF-α secretion by MH-S cells.(A) CHO cells overexpressing TTP were treated with 4 Gy in the presence of either DMSO (vehicle control) or p38 inhibitor (SB203580), or PI3K inhibitor (Wortmannin), or GSK3ß inhibitors (SB415286, SB216763). Cell lysates were prepared 10 min post-radiation and immunoblotted using indicated antibodies. (B) MH-S cells were pretreated with either p38 or GSK3ß inhibitors as above and cell lysates were prepared 10 min post-radiation and immunoblotted with the indicated antibodies. (C) MH-S cells were irradiated with 4 Gy in the presence or absence of a p38 inhibitor (SB203580), and radiation-induced TNF-α secretion was quantified using ELISA. (D) MH-S cells were treated with either control (C) or TTP (T) siRNA. 24 h post-transfection, cells were either left un-irradiated or radiated with 4 Gy. Culture supernatants were collected 48 h post-radiation, and TNF-α levels were quantified. In the inset, the effectiveness of p38 siRNA is shown in cell lysates isolated from C or T siRNA treated cells.

Mentions: After having shown that radiation causes TNF-α secretion upon TTP phosphorylation, we wanted to identify the kinase responsible for radiation-induced TTP phosphorylation. To this end, we pre-treated CHO cells overexpressing TTP with various kinase inhibitors (e.g. p38 inhibitor, SB203580; PI3K inhibitor, Wortmannin and GSK3 inhibitors, SB214667 and SB51223) to determine which, if any, inhibit radiation-induced TTP phosphorylation. Among these kinase inhibitors, SB203580 and Wortmannin significantly blocked the radiation-induced Ser178-phosphorylation of TTP, whereas GSK3 inhibitors had no effect (Fig. 5A). Similar results were obtained with endogenous TTP phosphorylation when MH-S cells were pre-treated with the inhibitors (Fig. 5B). As we expected, SB203580 also inhibited radiation-induced TNF-α secretion by MH-S cells (Fig. 5C). To further characterize the involvement of p38 in radiation-induced TTP phosphorylation, we used siRNA to down-regulate p38. We confirmed that knockdown of p38 by siRNA (Fig. 5D inset) can inhibit radiation-induced TNF-α secretion by MH-S cells. A significant increase in TTP level was detected in p38 siRNA treated cells (Fig. 5D inset). These findings demonstrate that p38 is responsible for radiation-induced TTP phosphorylation, which causes its inactivation allowing increased TNF-α mRNA levels and secretion.


Tristetraprolin mediates radiation-induced TNF-α production in lung macrophages.

Ray D, Shukla S, Allam US, Helman A, Ramanand SG, Tran L, Bassetti M, Krishnamurthy PM, Rumschlag M, Paulsen M, Sun L, Shanley TP, Ljungman M, Nyati MK, Zhang M, Lawrence TS - PLoS ONE (2013)

p38 kinase controls radiation-induced TTP phosphorylation and TNF-α secretion by MH-S cells.(A) CHO cells overexpressing TTP were treated with 4 Gy in the presence of either DMSO (vehicle control) or p38 inhibitor (SB203580), or PI3K inhibitor (Wortmannin), or GSK3ß inhibitors (SB415286, SB216763). Cell lysates were prepared 10 min post-radiation and immunoblotted using indicated antibodies. (B) MH-S cells were pretreated with either p38 or GSK3ß inhibitors as above and cell lysates were prepared 10 min post-radiation and immunoblotted with the indicated antibodies. (C) MH-S cells were irradiated with 4 Gy in the presence or absence of a p38 inhibitor (SB203580), and radiation-induced TNF-α secretion was quantified using ELISA. (D) MH-S cells were treated with either control (C) or TTP (T) siRNA. 24 h post-transfection, cells were either left un-irradiated or radiated with 4 Gy. Culture supernatants were collected 48 h post-radiation, and TNF-α levels were quantified. In the inset, the effectiveness of p38 siRNA is shown in cell lysates isolated from C or T siRNA treated cells.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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pone-0057290-g005: p38 kinase controls radiation-induced TTP phosphorylation and TNF-α secretion by MH-S cells.(A) CHO cells overexpressing TTP were treated with 4 Gy in the presence of either DMSO (vehicle control) or p38 inhibitor (SB203580), or PI3K inhibitor (Wortmannin), or GSK3ß inhibitors (SB415286, SB216763). Cell lysates were prepared 10 min post-radiation and immunoblotted using indicated antibodies. (B) MH-S cells were pretreated with either p38 or GSK3ß inhibitors as above and cell lysates were prepared 10 min post-radiation and immunoblotted with the indicated antibodies. (C) MH-S cells were irradiated with 4 Gy in the presence or absence of a p38 inhibitor (SB203580), and radiation-induced TNF-α secretion was quantified using ELISA. (D) MH-S cells were treated with either control (C) or TTP (T) siRNA. 24 h post-transfection, cells were either left un-irradiated or radiated with 4 Gy. Culture supernatants were collected 48 h post-radiation, and TNF-α levels were quantified. In the inset, the effectiveness of p38 siRNA is shown in cell lysates isolated from C or T siRNA treated cells.
Mentions: After having shown that radiation causes TNF-α secretion upon TTP phosphorylation, we wanted to identify the kinase responsible for radiation-induced TTP phosphorylation. To this end, we pre-treated CHO cells overexpressing TTP with various kinase inhibitors (e.g. p38 inhibitor, SB203580; PI3K inhibitor, Wortmannin and GSK3 inhibitors, SB214667 and SB51223) to determine which, if any, inhibit radiation-induced TTP phosphorylation. Among these kinase inhibitors, SB203580 and Wortmannin significantly blocked the radiation-induced Ser178-phosphorylation of TTP, whereas GSK3 inhibitors had no effect (Fig. 5A). Similar results were obtained with endogenous TTP phosphorylation when MH-S cells were pre-treated with the inhibitors (Fig. 5B). As we expected, SB203580 also inhibited radiation-induced TNF-α secretion by MH-S cells (Fig. 5C). To further characterize the involvement of p38 in radiation-induced TTP phosphorylation, we used siRNA to down-regulate p38. We confirmed that knockdown of p38 by siRNA (Fig. 5D inset) can inhibit radiation-induced TNF-α secretion by MH-S cells. A significant increase in TTP level was detected in p38 siRNA treated cells (Fig. 5D inset). These findings demonstrate that p38 is responsible for radiation-induced TTP phosphorylation, which causes its inactivation allowing increased TNF-α mRNA levels and secretion.

Bottom Line: To study the in vivo relevance, mouse lungs were irradiated with a single dose (15 Gy) and assessed at varying times for TTP alterations.In conclusion, irradiation of lung macrophages causes TTP inactivation via p38-mediated phosphorylation and proteasome-mediated degradation, leading to TNF-α production.These findings suggest that agents capable of blocking TTP phosphorylation or stabilizing TTP after irradiation could decrease RILT.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America. dipray@umich.edu

ABSTRACT
The efficacy of radiation therapy for lung cancer is limited by radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT). Although tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) signaling plays a critical role in RILT, the molecular regulators of radiation-induced TNF-α production remain unknown. We investigated the role of a major TNF-α regulator, Tristetraprolin (TTP), in radiation-induced TNF-α production by macrophages. For in vitro studies we irradiated (4 Gy) either a mouse lung macrophage cell line, MH-S or macrophages isolated from TTP knockout mice, and studied the effects of radiation on TTP and TNF-α levels. To study the in vivo relevance, mouse lungs were irradiated with a single dose (15 Gy) and assessed at varying times for TTP alterations. Irradiation of MH-S cells caused TTP to undergo an inhibitory phosphorylation at Ser-178 and proteasome-mediated degradation, which resulted in increased TNF-α mRNA stabilization and secretion. Similarly, MH-S cells treated with TTP siRNA or macrophages isolated from ttp (-/-) mice had higher basal levels of TNF-α, which was increased minimally after irradiation. Conversely, cells overexpressing TTP mutants defective in undergoing phosphorylation released significantly lower levels of TNF-α. Inhibition of p38, a known kinase for TTP, by either siRNA or a small molecule inhibitor abrogated radiation-induced TNF-α release by MH-S cells. Lung irradiation induced TTP(Ser178) phosphorylation and protein degradation and a simultaneous increase in TNF-α production in C57BL/6 mice starting 24 h post-radiation. In conclusion, irradiation of lung macrophages causes TTP inactivation via p38-mediated phosphorylation and proteasome-mediated degradation, leading to TNF-α production. These findings suggest that agents capable of blocking TTP phosphorylation or stabilizing TTP after irradiation could decrease RILT.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus