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A genome-wide analysis of the LBD (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES domain) gene family in Malus domestica with a functional characterization of MdLBD11.

Wang X, Zhang S, Su L, Liu X, Hao Y - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: At the same time, the expression analysis implied that members of this apple gene family were responsive to hormones and stress and that they may participate in hormone-mediated plant organogenesis, which was demonstrated with the overexpression of the apple LBD gene MdLBD11, resulting in an abnormal phenotype.This phenotype included upward curling leaves, delayed flowering, downward-pointing flowers, siliques and other abnormal traits.Based on these data, we concluded that the MdLBD genes may play an important role in apple growth and development as in Arabidopsis and other species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Key laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-An, Shandong, China.

ABSTRACT
The plant-specific LBD (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES domain) genes belong to a major family of transcription factor that encode a zinc finger-like domain. It has been shown that LBD genes play crucial roles in the growth and development of Arabidopsis and other plant species. However, no detailed information concerning this family is available for apple. In the present study, we analyzed the apple (Malus domestica) genome and identified 58 LBD genes. This gene family was tested for its phylogenetic relationships with homologous genes in the Arabidopsis genome, as well as its location in the genome, structure and expression. We also transformed one MdLBD gene into Arabidopsis to evaluate its function. Like Arabidopsis, apple LBD genes also have a conserved CX2CX6CX3C zinc finger-like domain in the N terminus and can be divided into two classes. The expression profile indicated that apple LBD genes exhibited a variety of expression patterns, suggesting that they have diverse functions. At the same time, the expression analysis implied that members of this apple gene family were responsive to hormones and stress and that they may participate in hormone-mediated plant organogenesis, which was demonstrated with the overexpression of the apple LBD gene MdLBD11, resulting in an abnormal phenotype. This phenotype included upward curling leaves, delayed flowering, downward-pointing flowers, siliques and other abnormal traits. Based on these data, we concluded that the MdLBD genes may play an important role in apple growth and development as in Arabidopsis and other species.

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MdLBD11 interacts with AtAS1 in a yeast two-hybrid assay.Yeast strains containing pGAD-AtAS1, pGBD-MdLBD11, and pGBD-AtAS2 were assayed for LacZ expression, pGAD-AtAS1 in combination with pGBD-AtAS2 was used as a positive control, and pGAD with pGBD-MdLBD11 was used as a negative control. Yeast grew on SD/−T/−L medium to select for both the bait and prey proteins (left). SD/−T/−L/−A/−H media allow the growth of only positively interacting clones. SD/−T/−L/−A/−H media plus X-gal allow the growth of only the positively interacting clones.
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pone-0057044-g007: MdLBD11 interacts with AtAS1 in a yeast two-hybrid assay.Yeast strains containing pGAD-AtAS1, pGBD-MdLBD11, and pGBD-AtAS2 were assayed for LacZ expression, pGAD-AtAS1 in combination with pGBD-AtAS2 was used as a positive control, and pGAD with pGBD-MdLBD11 was used as a negative control. Yeast grew on SD/−T/−L medium to select for both the bait and prey proteins (left). SD/−T/−L/−A/−H media allow the growth of only positively interacting clones. SD/−T/−L/−A/−H media plus X-gal allow the growth of only the positively interacting clones.

Mentions: Furthermore, to examine how MdLBD11 regulates plant development and growth, yeast two-hybrid assay was conducted. The result showed that MdLBD11 interacted with Arabidopsis AtAS1 (Fig. 7). Meanwhile, the expressions of the class I KNOX genes were analyzed in MdLBD11 overexpression lines. The results showed that all transgenic lines produced less KNAT1 and STM transcripts than the WT control, with no obvious transcription difference in KNAT2 and KNAT6 (Fig. 6A), suggesting that MdLBD11 regulated plant development and growth, at least partially if not completely by modulating class I KNOX gene expression, just as AtAS2 and AtASL1 in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the results indicated that MdLBD11 functioned with a conserved mechanism like its Arabidopsis counterparts AtAS2 and AtASL1.


A genome-wide analysis of the LBD (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES domain) gene family in Malus domestica with a functional characterization of MdLBD11.

Wang X, Zhang S, Su L, Liu X, Hao Y - PLoS ONE (2013)

MdLBD11 interacts with AtAS1 in a yeast two-hybrid assay.Yeast strains containing pGAD-AtAS1, pGBD-MdLBD11, and pGBD-AtAS2 were assayed for LacZ expression, pGAD-AtAS1 in combination with pGBD-AtAS2 was used as a positive control, and pGAD with pGBD-MdLBD11 was used as a negative control. Yeast grew on SD/−T/−L medium to select for both the bait and prey proteins (left). SD/−T/−L/−A/−H media allow the growth of only positively interacting clones. SD/−T/−L/−A/−H media plus X-gal allow the growth of only the positively interacting clones.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585328&req=5

pone-0057044-g007: MdLBD11 interacts with AtAS1 in a yeast two-hybrid assay.Yeast strains containing pGAD-AtAS1, pGBD-MdLBD11, and pGBD-AtAS2 were assayed for LacZ expression, pGAD-AtAS1 in combination with pGBD-AtAS2 was used as a positive control, and pGAD with pGBD-MdLBD11 was used as a negative control. Yeast grew on SD/−T/−L medium to select for both the bait and prey proteins (left). SD/−T/−L/−A/−H media allow the growth of only positively interacting clones. SD/−T/−L/−A/−H media plus X-gal allow the growth of only the positively interacting clones.
Mentions: Furthermore, to examine how MdLBD11 regulates plant development and growth, yeast two-hybrid assay was conducted. The result showed that MdLBD11 interacted with Arabidopsis AtAS1 (Fig. 7). Meanwhile, the expressions of the class I KNOX genes were analyzed in MdLBD11 overexpression lines. The results showed that all transgenic lines produced less KNAT1 and STM transcripts than the WT control, with no obvious transcription difference in KNAT2 and KNAT6 (Fig. 6A), suggesting that MdLBD11 regulated plant development and growth, at least partially if not completely by modulating class I KNOX gene expression, just as AtAS2 and AtASL1 in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the results indicated that MdLBD11 functioned with a conserved mechanism like its Arabidopsis counterparts AtAS2 and AtASL1.

Bottom Line: At the same time, the expression analysis implied that members of this apple gene family were responsive to hormones and stress and that they may participate in hormone-mediated plant organogenesis, which was demonstrated with the overexpression of the apple LBD gene MdLBD11, resulting in an abnormal phenotype.This phenotype included upward curling leaves, delayed flowering, downward-pointing flowers, siliques and other abnormal traits.Based on these data, we concluded that the MdLBD genes may play an important role in apple growth and development as in Arabidopsis and other species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Key laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-An, Shandong, China.

ABSTRACT
The plant-specific LBD (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES domain) genes belong to a major family of transcription factor that encode a zinc finger-like domain. It has been shown that LBD genes play crucial roles in the growth and development of Arabidopsis and other plant species. However, no detailed information concerning this family is available for apple. In the present study, we analyzed the apple (Malus domestica) genome and identified 58 LBD genes. This gene family was tested for its phylogenetic relationships with homologous genes in the Arabidopsis genome, as well as its location in the genome, structure and expression. We also transformed one MdLBD gene into Arabidopsis to evaluate its function. Like Arabidopsis, apple LBD genes also have a conserved CX2CX6CX3C zinc finger-like domain in the N terminus and can be divided into two classes. The expression profile indicated that apple LBD genes exhibited a variety of expression patterns, suggesting that they have diverse functions. At the same time, the expression analysis implied that members of this apple gene family were responsive to hormones and stress and that they may participate in hormone-mediated plant organogenesis, which was demonstrated with the overexpression of the apple LBD gene MdLBD11, resulting in an abnormal phenotype. This phenotype included upward curling leaves, delayed flowering, downward-pointing flowers, siliques and other abnormal traits. Based on these data, we concluded that the MdLBD genes may play an important role in apple growth and development as in Arabidopsis and other species.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus