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A genome-wide analysis of the LBD (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES domain) gene family in Malus domestica with a functional characterization of MdLBD11.

Wang X, Zhang S, Su L, Liu X, Hao Y - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: At the same time, the expression analysis implied that members of this apple gene family were responsive to hormones and stress and that they may participate in hormone-mediated plant organogenesis, which was demonstrated with the overexpression of the apple LBD gene MdLBD11, resulting in an abnormal phenotype.This phenotype included upward curling leaves, delayed flowering, downward-pointing flowers, siliques and other abnormal traits.Based on these data, we concluded that the MdLBD genes may play an important role in apple growth and development as in Arabidopsis and other species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Key laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-An, Shandong, China.

ABSTRACT
The plant-specific LBD (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES domain) genes belong to a major family of transcription factor that encode a zinc finger-like domain. It has been shown that LBD genes play crucial roles in the growth and development of Arabidopsis and other plant species. However, no detailed information concerning this family is available for apple. In the present study, we analyzed the apple (Malus domestica) genome and identified 58 LBD genes. This gene family was tested for its phylogenetic relationships with homologous genes in the Arabidopsis genome, as well as its location in the genome, structure and expression. We also transformed one MdLBD gene into Arabidopsis to evaluate its function. Like Arabidopsis, apple LBD genes also have a conserved CX2CX6CX3C zinc finger-like domain in the N terminus and can be divided into two classes. The expression profile indicated that apple LBD genes exhibited a variety of expression patterns, suggesting that they have diverse functions. At the same time, the expression analysis implied that members of this apple gene family were responsive to hormones and stress and that they may participate in hormone-mediated plant organogenesis, which was demonstrated with the overexpression of the apple LBD gene MdLBD11, resulting in an abnormal phenotype. This phenotype included upward curling leaves, delayed flowering, downward-pointing flowers, siliques and other abnormal traits. Based on these data, we concluded that the MdLBD genes may play an important role in apple growth and development as in Arabidopsis and other species.

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Ectopic expression of MdLBD11 changes the phenotype in transgenic Arabidopsis.A. Expression analysis of MdLBD11 and KNOX genes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Expression levels of MdLBD11 and KNOX genes were detected in transgenic Arabidopsis in comparison with wide type lines, and three transgenic lines were selected for expression analysis. B. Morphological characteristics of transgenic Arabidopsis. Two week-old rosettes (upper), one month-old (middle) and two month-old (bottom) transgenic Arabidopsis were compared with wide type lines. Bars = 1 cm.
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pone-0057044-g006: Ectopic expression of MdLBD11 changes the phenotype in transgenic Arabidopsis.A. Expression analysis of MdLBD11 and KNOX genes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Expression levels of MdLBD11 and KNOX genes were detected in transgenic Arabidopsis in comparison with wide type lines, and three transgenic lines were selected for expression analysis. B. Morphological characteristics of transgenic Arabidopsis. Two week-old rosettes (upper), one month-old (middle) and two month-old (bottom) transgenic Arabidopsis were compared with wide type lines. Bars = 1 cm.

Mentions: In order to know more about the biological functions of MdLBD genes, MdLBD11 was chosen for functional characterization. According to the sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, MdLBD11 was highly similar to Arabidopsis AtASL1 and AtAS2 (Fig. S3). First, its cDNA was introduced into Arabidopsis. Consequently, three Arabidopsis transgenic lines were obtained with different ectopic expression levels (Fig. 6A). When compared with the WT control, all transgenic lines exhibited abnormal phenotypes in relation to vegetative development and growth, including reduced plant stature, short petioles and small and upward curled leaves. Meanwhile, transgenic plants also experienced long juvenility, and their downward-pointing flowers and siliques had short pedicels (Fig. 6B). The extent of abnormal phenotypes was positively correlated with the expression level of MdLBD11 in transgenic lines, indicating that the ectopic expression of MdLBD11 resulted in the transgenic phenotypes.


A genome-wide analysis of the LBD (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES domain) gene family in Malus domestica with a functional characterization of MdLBD11.

Wang X, Zhang S, Su L, Liu X, Hao Y - PLoS ONE (2013)

Ectopic expression of MdLBD11 changes the phenotype in transgenic Arabidopsis.A. Expression analysis of MdLBD11 and KNOX genes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Expression levels of MdLBD11 and KNOX genes were detected in transgenic Arabidopsis in comparison with wide type lines, and three transgenic lines were selected for expression analysis. B. Morphological characteristics of transgenic Arabidopsis. Two week-old rosettes (upper), one month-old (middle) and two month-old (bottom) transgenic Arabidopsis were compared with wide type lines. Bars = 1 cm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585328&req=5

pone-0057044-g006: Ectopic expression of MdLBD11 changes the phenotype in transgenic Arabidopsis.A. Expression analysis of MdLBD11 and KNOX genes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Expression levels of MdLBD11 and KNOX genes were detected in transgenic Arabidopsis in comparison with wide type lines, and three transgenic lines were selected for expression analysis. B. Morphological characteristics of transgenic Arabidopsis. Two week-old rosettes (upper), one month-old (middle) and two month-old (bottom) transgenic Arabidopsis were compared with wide type lines. Bars = 1 cm.
Mentions: In order to know more about the biological functions of MdLBD genes, MdLBD11 was chosen for functional characterization. According to the sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, MdLBD11 was highly similar to Arabidopsis AtASL1 and AtAS2 (Fig. S3). First, its cDNA was introduced into Arabidopsis. Consequently, three Arabidopsis transgenic lines were obtained with different ectopic expression levels (Fig. 6A). When compared with the WT control, all transgenic lines exhibited abnormal phenotypes in relation to vegetative development and growth, including reduced plant stature, short petioles and small and upward curled leaves. Meanwhile, transgenic plants also experienced long juvenility, and their downward-pointing flowers and siliques had short pedicels (Fig. 6B). The extent of abnormal phenotypes was positively correlated with the expression level of MdLBD11 in transgenic lines, indicating that the ectopic expression of MdLBD11 resulted in the transgenic phenotypes.

Bottom Line: At the same time, the expression analysis implied that members of this apple gene family were responsive to hormones and stress and that they may participate in hormone-mediated plant organogenesis, which was demonstrated with the overexpression of the apple LBD gene MdLBD11, resulting in an abnormal phenotype.This phenotype included upward curling leaves, delayed flowering, downward-pointing flowers, siliques and other abnormal traits.Based on these data, we concluded that the MdLBD genes may play an important role in apple growth and development as in Arabidopsis and other species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Key laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-An, Shandong, China.

ABSTRACT
The plant-specific LBD (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES domain) genes belong to a major family of transcription factor that encode a zinc finger-like domain. It has been shown that LBD genes play crucial roles in the growth and development of Arabidopsis and other plant species. However, no detailed information concerning this family is available for apple. In the present study, we analyzed the apple (Malus domestica) genome and identified 58 LBD genes. This gene family was tested for its phylogenetic relationships with homologous genes in the Arabidopsis genome, as well as its location in the genome, structure and expression. We also transformed one MdLBD gene into Arabidopsis to evaluate its function. Like Arabidopsis, apple LBD genes also have a conserved CX2CX6CX3C zinc finger-like domain in the N terminus and can be divided into two classes. The expression profile indicated that apple LBD genes exhibited a variety of expression patterns, suggesting that they have diverse functions. At the same time, the expression analysis implied that members of this apple gene family were responsive to hormones and stress and that they may participate in hormone-mediated plant organogenesis, which was demonstrated with the overexpression of the apple LBD gene MdLBD11, resulting in an abnormal phenotype. This phenotype included upward curling leaves, delayed flowering, downward-pointing flowers, siliques and other abnormal traits. Based on these data, we concluded that the MdLBD genes may play an important role in apple growth and development as in Arabidopsis and other species.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus