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Sharing of potential nest sites by Etheostoma olmstedi males suggests mutual tolerance in an alloparental species.

Stiver KA, Wolff SH, Alonzo SH - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Fish were generally more likely to use and share larger sites, in accordance with the greater relative surface area they offered.We discuss how one or both sharing males may potentially benefit, and how male sharing of potential nest sites could relate to female mating preferences.Thus, the suggestion that they may also share sites and maintain social contact with reproductive competitors highlights the importance of increased focus on the potential complexity of reproductive systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Psychology Department, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. stiverk1@southernct.edu

ABSTRACT
When reproductive competitors tolerate or cooperate with one another, they may gain particular benefits, such as collectively guarding resources or attracting mates. Shared resources may be those essential to reproduction, such as a breeding site or nest. Using the tessellated darter, a species where males but not females compete over potential nest sites, we examined site use and sharing under controlled conditions of differing competitor density. Sharing was observed even when competitor density was low and individuals could have each occupied a potential nest site without same-sex sharing. Males were more likely to share a nest site with one other when the difference in size between them was larger rather than smaller. There was no evidence that female sharing was dependent on their relative size. Fish were generally more likely to use and share larger sites, in accordance with the greater relative surface area they offered. We discuss how one or both sharing males may potentially benefit, and how male sharing of potential nest sites could relate to female mating preferences. Tessellated darter males are known to provide alloparental care for eggs but this occurs without any social contact between the alloparent and the genetic father of the young. Thus, the suggestion that they may also share sites and maintain social contact with reproductive competitors highlights the importance of increased focus on the potential complexity of reproductive systems.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Rate of sharing between same-sex pairs.Density condition did not influence the rate of sharing between same-sex pairs, although there was a trend suggesting that females may be more likely to share with one another than males are (based on the proportion of checks for which a particular pair was found to be sharing a tile; repeated-measures ANOVA, sex: F1,59  =  3.13, p  =  0.08; density condition: F2,59  =  0.17, p  =  0.84; sex×density condition: F2,59  =  1.77, p  =  0.18). As the lowest density condition had the same number of territories as it had same-sex individuals, each individual could have had his or her own potential nest site without sharing with a fish of the same sex if they would show maximum outspacing. The sharing observed suggests that site availability did not underlie sharing.
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pone-0056041-g001: Rate of sharing between same-sex pairs.Density condition did not influence the rate of sharing between same-sex pairs, although there was a trend suggesting that females may be more likely to share with one another than males are (based on the proportion of checks for which a particular pair was found to be sharing a tile; repeated-measures ANOVA, sex: F1,59  =  3.13, p  =  0.08; density condition: F2,59  =  0.17, p  =  0.84; sex×density condition: F2,59  =  1.77, p  =  0.18). As the lowest density condition had the same number of territories as it had same-sex individuals, each individual could have had his or her own potential nest site without sharing with a fish of the same sex if they would show maximum outspacing. The sharing observed suggests that site availability did not underlie sharing.

Mentions: While there was a trend suggesting that females shared with one another more often than males did, there was no influence of density condition on sharing rates (see figure 1). This suggests that the availability of potential nest sites does not underlie sharing, as in the lowest density condition there are sufficient tiles for each same-sex individual to occupy a tile without sharing.


Sharing of potential nest sites by Etheostoma olmstedi males suggests mutual tolerance in an alloparental species.

Stiver KA, Wolff SH, Alonzo SH - PLoS ONE (2013)

Rate of sharing between same-sex pairs.Density condition did not influence the rate of sharing between same-sex pairs, although there was a trend suggesting that females may be more likely to share with one another than males are (based on the proportion of checks for which a particular pair was found to be sharing a tile; repeated-measures ANOVA, sex: F1,59  =  3.13, p  =  0.08; density condition: F2,59  =  0.17, p  =  0.84; sex×density condition: F2,59  =  1.77, p  =  0.18). As the lowest density condition had the same number of territories as it had same-sex individuals, each individual could have had his or her own potential nest site without sharing with a fish of the same sex if they would show maximum outspacing. The sharing observed suggests that site availability did not underlie sharing.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585326&req=5

pone-0056041-g001: Rate of sharing between same-sex pairs.Density condition did not influence the rate of sharing between same-sex pairs, although there was a trend suggesting that females may be more likely to share with one another than males are (based on the proportion of checks for which a particular pair was found to be sharing a tile; repeated-measures ANOVA, sex: F1,59  =  3.13, p  =  0.08; density condition: F2,59  =  0.17, p  =  0.84; sex×density condition: F2,59  =  1.77, p  =  0.18). As the lowest density condition had the same number of territories as it had same-sex individuals, each individual could have had his or her own potential nest site without sharing with a fish of the same sex if they would show maximum outspacing. The sharing observed suggests that site availability did not underlie sharing.
Mentions: While there was a trend suggesting that females shared with one another more often than males did, there was no influence of density condition on sharing rates (see figure 1). This suggests that the availability of potential nest sites does not underlie sharing, as in the lowest density condition there are sufficient tiles for each same-sex individual to occupy a tile without sharing.

Bottom Line: Fish were generally more likely to use and share larger sites, in accordance with the greater relative surface area they offered.We discuss how one or both sharing males may potentially benefit, and how male sharing of potential nest sites could relate to female mating preferences.Thus, the suggestion that they may also share sites and maintain social contact with reproductive competitors highlights the importance of increased focus on the potential complexity of reproductive systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Psychology Department, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. stiverk1@southernct.edu

ABSTRACT
When reproductive competitors tolerate or cooperate with one another, they may gain particular benefits, such as collectively guarding resources or attracting mates. Shared resources may be those essential to reproduction, such as a breeding site or nest. Using the tessellated darter, a species where males but not females compete over potential nest sites, we examined site use and sharing under controlled conditions of differing competitor density. Sharing was observed even when competitor density was low and individuals could have each occupied a potential nest site without same-sex sharing. Males were more likely to share a nest site with one other when the difference in size between them was larger rather than smaller. There was no evidence that female sharing was dependent on their relative size. Fish were generally more likely to use and share larger sites, in accordance with the greater relative surface area they offered. We discuss how one or both sharing males may potentially benefit, and how male sharing of potential nest sites could relate to female mating preferences. Tessellated darter males are known to provide alloparental care for eggs but this occurs without any social contact between the alloparent and the genetic father of the young. Thus, the suggestion that they may also share sites and maintain social contact with reproductive competitors highlights the importance of increased focus on the potential complexity of reproductive systems.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus