Limits...
Proposal and phylogenetic relationships of Lapsamita, a new genus of lapsiines, and description of a new species (araneae, salticidae).

Ruiz GR - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The presence of palpal claws in females, long ventral spines on front tibiae and metatarsi and long retrolateral tibial apophyses in male palps suggested that the species was closely related to or even nested within Soesiladeepakius Makhan, 2007.The analysis showed L. maddisoni as the sister group of Soesiladeepakius, supporting the proposal of the new genus.Character evolution is discussed and compared to a previous study on the group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil. gustavoruiz86@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
Lapsamita maddisoni gen. et sp. nov. is described from Bahia, Brazil. The presence of palpal claws in females, long ventral spines on front tibiae and metatarsi and long retrolateral tibial apophyses in male palps suggested that the species was closely related to or even nested within Soesiladeepakius Makhan, 2007. To evaluate its phylogenetic position, a cladistic analysis was carried out using a data matrix comprising 24 morphological characters, scored for 13 taxa. The analysis showed L. maddisoni as the sister group of Soesiladeepakius, supporting the proposal of the new genus. Character evolution is discussed and compared to a previous study on the group.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of optimizations of changes in the retrolateral femoral apophysis (RFA, upper tree) and retrolateral tibial apophysis (RTA, lower tree) in male palps of species of genera Lapsamita and Soesiladeepakius.White branches represent absence of apophyses (or poorly developed apophyses), gray branches represent moderately developed apophyses and black branches represent elongate or well developed apophyses. RFA shows a straight forward evolution but changes in RTA are ambiguous. Left tree shows a delayed transformation (DELTRAN) of the RTA, becoming independently well developed in L. maddisoni and S. lyra + S. retroversus and poorly developed in the 4-taxon polytomy. Right tree shows an accelerated transformation (ACCTRAN) of the RTA, first becoming elongate at the base of the tree, reducing to moderately developed and then to poorly developed within Soesiladeepakius. The two arrows indicate coincidence in changes of RFA and RTA along the tree under ACCTRAN interpretation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585316&req=5

pone-0056188-g004: Comparison of optimizations of changes in the retrolateral femoral apophysis (RFA, upper tree) and retrolateral tibial apophysis (RTA, lower tree) in male palps of species of genera Lapsamita and Soesiladeepakius.White branches represent absence of apophyses (or poorly developed apophyses), gray branches represent moderately developed apophyses and black branches represent elongate or well developed apophyses. RFA shows a straight forward evolution but changes in RTA are ambiguous. Left tree shows a delayed transformation (DELTRAN) of the RTA, becoming independently well developed in L. maddisoni and S. lyra + S. retroversus and poorly developed in the 4-taxon polytomy. Right tree shows an accelerated transformation (ACCTRAN) of the RTA, first becoming elongate at the base of the tree, reducing to moderately developed and then to poorly developed within Soesiladeepakius. The two arrows indicate coincidence in changes of RFA and RTA along the tree under ACCTRAN interpretation.

Mentions: Another character in this new data set whose evolution renders difficult interpretation concerns the length of the RTA (char. 13). The previous study [6] found that the moderately long RTA, reaching only the proximal tegulum (state 0) was plesiomorphic for lapsiines, being present in P. africana, T. parocula, G. bryicola, G. sacha and S. arthrostylus. The reduced, almost inconspicuous RTA (state 2) appeared joining some species of Soesiladeepakius (S. biarmatus + S. gasnieri + S. uncinatus + S. aschnae) and homoplastically in Lapsias estebanensis. The change to a very long RTA, reaching the distal portion of the tegulum (state 1), was recovered in that study as a synapomorphy of S. lyra + S. retroversus. The inclusion of Lapsamita maddisoni in the analysis, however, has blurred this interpretation. It is clear that state 0 (moderate) is plesiomorphic and that state 2 (reduced RTA) happened independently in Lapsias and within Soesiladeepakius. The evolution of the elongate RTA (state 1), however, could be reinterpreted with the addition of L. maddisoni. If we consider the ambiguity as having a DELTRAN, the long RTA evolved twice, in S. lyra + S. retroversus and in L. maddisoni (Fig. 4, left tree). The ACCTRAN algorithm, on the other hand, suggests that the change from a moderately long RTA (the plesiomorphic form) to an elongate RTA could also be a synapomorphy joining Soesiladeepakius and L. maddisoni (Fig. 4, right tree). Moreover, that the RTA reduction occurring within Soesiladeepakius would have had two steps: first, back to the moderately long RTA (still seen in S. arthrostylus) and then greatly reduced in the remaining species of the genus.


Proposal and phylogenetic relationships of Lapsamita, a new genus of lapsiines, and description of a new species (araneae, salticidae).

Ruiz GR - PLoS ONE (2013)

Comparison of optimizations of changes in the retrolateral femoral apophysis (RFA, upper tree) and retrolateral tibial apophysis (RTA, lower tree) in male palps of species of genera Lapsamita and Soesiladeepakius.White branches represent absence of apophyses (or poorly developed apophyses), gray branches represent moderately developed apophyses and black branches represent elongate or well developed apophyses. RFA shows a straight forward evolution but changes in RTA are ambiguous. Left tree shows a delayed transformation (DELTRAN) of the RTA, becoming independently well developed in L. maddisoni and S. lyra + S. retroversus and poorly developed in the 4-taxon polytomy. Right tree shows an accelerated transformation (ACCTRAN) of the RTA, first becoming elongate at the base of the tree, reducing to moderately developed and then to poorly developed within Soesiladeepakius. The two arrows indicate coincidence in changes of RFA and RTA along the tree under ACCTRAN interpretation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585316&req=5

pone-0056188-g004: Comparison of optimizations of changes in the retrolateral femoral apophysis (RFA, upper tree) and retrolateral tibial apophysis (RTA, lower tree) in male palps of species of genera Lapsamita and Soesiladeepakius.White branches represent absence of apophyses (or poorly developed apophyses), gray branches represent moderately developed apophyses and black branches represent elongate or well developed apophyses. RFA shows a straight forward evolution but changes in RTA are ambiguous. Left tree shows a delayed transformation (DELTRAN) of the RTA, becoming independently well developed in L. maddisoni and S. lyra + S. retroversus and poorly developed in the 4-taxon polytomy. Right tree shows an accelerated transformation (ACCTRAN) of the RTA, first becoming elongate at the base of the tree, reducing to moderately developed and then to poorly developed within Soesiladeepakius. The two arrows indicate coincidence in changes of RFA and RTA along the tree under ACCTRAN interpretation.
Mentions: Another character in this new data set whose evolution renders difficult interpretation concerns the length of the RTA (char. 13). The previous study [6] found that the moderately long RTA, reaching only the proximal tegulum (state 0) was plesiomorphic for lapsiines, being present in P. africana, T. parocula, G. bryicola, G. sacha and S. arthrostylus. The reduced, almost inconspicuous RTA (state 2) appeared joining some species of Soesiladeepakius (S. biarmatus + S. gasnieri + S. uncinatus + S. aschnae) and homoplastically in Lapsias estebanensis. The change to a very long RTA, reaching the distal portion of the tegulum (state 1), was recovered in that study as a synapomorphy of S. lyra + S. retroversus. The inclusion of Lapsamita maddisoni in the analysis, however, has blurred this interpretation. It is clear that state 0 (moderate) is plesiomorphic and that state 2 (reduced RTA) happened independently in Lapsias and within Soesiladeepakius. The evolution of the elongate RTA (state 1), however, could be reinterpreted with the addition of L. maddisoni. If we consider the ambiguity as having a DELTRAN, the long RTA evolved twice, in S. lyra + S. retroversus and in L. maddisoni (Fig. 4, left tree). The ACCTRAN algorithm, on the other hand, suggests that the change from a moderately long RTA (the plesiomorphic form) to an elongate RTA could also be a synapomorphy joining Soesiladeepakius and L. maddisoni (Fig. 4, right tree). Moreover, that the RTA reduction occurring within Soesiladeepakius would have had two steps: first, back to the moderately long RTA (still seen in S. arthrostylus) and then greatly reduced in the remaining species of the genus.

Bottom Line: The presence of palpal claws in females, long ventral spines on front tibiae and metatarsi and long retrolateral tibial apophyses in male palps suggested that the species was closely related to or even nested within Soesiladeepakius Makhan, 2007.The analysis showed L. maddisoni as the sister group of Soesiladeepakius, supporting the proposal of the new genus.Character evolution is discussed and compared to a previous study on the group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil. gustavoruiz86@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
Lapsamita maddisoni gen. et sp. nov. is described from Bahia, Brazil. The presence of palpal claws in females, long ventral spines on front tibiae and metatarsi and long retrolateral tibial apophyses in male palps suggested that the species was closely related to or even nested within Soesiladeepakius Makhan, 2007. To evaluate its phylogenetic position, a cladistic analysis was carried out using a data matrix comprising 24 morphological characters, scored for 13 taxa. The analysis showed L. maddisoni as the sister group of Soesiladeepakius, supporting the proposal of the new genus. Character evolution is discussed and compared to a previous study on the group.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus