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Flat feet, happy feet? Comparison of the dynamic plantar pressure distribution and static medial foot geometry between Malawian and Dutch adults.

Stolwijk NM, Duysens J, Louwerens JW, van de Ven YH, Keijsers NL - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Therefore, static foot geometry and dynamic plantar pressure distribution of 77 adults from Malawi were compared to 77 adults from the Netherlands.The plantar pressure pattern as well as the Arch Index (AI) and the trajectory of the center of pressure during the stance phase were calculated and compared between both groups.We found that Malawian adults: (1) loaded the midfoot for a longer and the forefoot for a shorter period during roll off, (2) had significantly lower plantar pressures under the heel and a part of the forefoot, and (3) had a larger AI and a lower MLA compared to the Dutch.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Department, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. n.stolwijk@maartenskliniek.nl

ABSTRACT
In contrast to western countries, foot complaints are rare in Africa. This is remarkable, as many African adults walk many hours each day, often barefoot or with worn-out shoes. The reason why Africans can withstand such loading without developing foot complaints might be related to the way the foot is loaded. Therefore, static foot geometry and dynamic plantar pressure distribution of 77 adults from Malawi were compared to 77 adults from the Netherlands. None of the subjects had a history of foot complaints. The plantar pressure pattern as well as the Arch Index (AI) and the trajectory of the center of pressure during the stance phase were calculated and compared between both groups. Standardized pictures were taken from the feet to assess the height of the Medial Longitudinal Arch (MLA). We found that Malawian adults: (1) loaded the midfoot for a longer and the forefoot for a shorter period during roll off, (2) had significantly lower plantar pressures under the heel and a part of the forefoot, and (3) had a larger AI and a lower MLA compared to the Dutch. These findings demonstrate that differences in static foot geometry, foot loading, and roll off technique exist between the two groups. The advantage of the foot loading pattern as shown by the Malawian group is that the plantar pressure is distributed more equally over the foot. This might prevent foot complaints.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Trajectory of the Center of Pressure.Upper left panel: the MP distribution for the Dutch group including the CoP path of the Dutch and Malawian group. Upper right panel: Difference in relative vCoP: Malawi group minus Dutch. Lower panels: the difference in CoP path for the mediolateral (left panel) and anteroposterior (right panel) direction. The red bars indicate that the CoP path/vCoP differs significantly between both groups.
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pone-0057209-g004: Trajectory of the Center of Pressure.Upper left panel: the MP distribution for the Dutch group including the CoP path of the Dutch and Malawian group. Upper right panel: Difference in relative vCoP: Malawi group minus Dutch. Lower panels: the difference in CoP path for the mediolateral (left panel) and anteroposterior (right panel) direction. The red bars indicate that the CoP path/vCoP differs significantly between both groups.

Mentions: The difference in CoP position and vCoP between the Malawian and Dutch group during roll off is shown in Figure 4. The Malawian subjects roll off their feet more laterally (a positive difference indicates lateralization of the CoP) during most part of the stance phase. In the first (1–14%) and third part (62–87%) of the stance phase, this difference between the Malawian and Dutch group was significant(p<0.0005). For the anteroposterior direction, the CoP was located significantly more anterior just after heel strike (6–12%) and before toe off (91–100%) for the Malawian subjects. In contrast, the CoP was situated significantly more posterior during mid stance (56–70%). The relative vCoP was significantly higher after heel strike and during propulsion and lower during mid stance for the Malawi group.


Flat feet, happy feet? Comparison of the dynamic plantar pressure distribution and static medial foot geometry between Malawian and Dutch adults.

Stolwijk NM, Duysens J, Louwerens JW, van de Ven YH, Keijsers NL - PLoS ONE (2013)

Trajectory of the Center of Pressure.Upper left panel: the MP distribution for the Dutch group including the CoP path of the Dutch and Malawian group. Upper right panel: Difference in relative vCoP: Malawi group minus Dutch. Lower panels: the difference in CoP path for the mediolateral (left panel) and anteroposterior (right panel) direction. The red bars indicate that the CoP path/vCoP differs significantly between both groups.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585310&req=5

pone-0057209-g004: Trajectory of the Center of Pressure.Upper left panel: the MP distribution for the Dutch group including the CoP path of the Dutch and Malawian group. Upper right panel: Difference in relative vCoP: Malawi group minus Dutch. Lower panels: the difference in CoP path for the mediolateral (left panel) and anteroposterior (right panel) direction. The red bars indicate that the CoP path/vCoP differs significantly between both groups.
Mentions: The difference in CoP position and vCoP between the Malawian and Dutch group during roll off is shown in Figure 4. The Malawian subjects roll off their feet more laterally (a positive difference indicates lateralization of the CoP) during most part of the stance phase. In the first (1–14%) and third part (62–87%) of the stance phase, this difference between the Malawian and Dutch group was significant(p<0.0005). For the anteroposterior direction, the CoP was located significantly more anterior just after heel strike (6–12%) and before toe off (91–100%) for the Malawian subjects. In contrast, the CoP was situated significantly more posterior during mid stance (56–70%). The relative vCoP was significantly higher after heel strike and during propulsion and lower during mid stance for the Malawi group.

Bottom Line: Therefore, static foot geometry and dynamic plantar pressure distribution of 77 adults from Malawi were compared to 77 adults from the Netherlands.The plantar pressure pattern as well as the Arch Index (AI) and the trajectory of the center of pressure during the stance phase were calculated and compared between both groups.We found that Malawian adults: (1) loaded the midfoot for a longer and the forefoot for a shorter period during roll off, (2) had significantly lower plantar pressures under the heel and a part of the forefoot, and (3) had a larger AI and a lower MLA compared to the Dutch.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Department, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. n.stolwijk@maartenskliniek.nl

ABSTRACT
In contrast to western countries, foot complaints are rare in Africa. This is remarkable, as many African adults walk many hours each day, often barefoot or with worn-out shoes. The reason why Africans can withstand such loading without developing foot complaints might be related to the way the foot is loaded. Therefore, static foot geometry and dynamic plantar pressure distribution of 77 adults from Malawi were compared to 77 adults from the Netherlands. None of the subjects had a history of foot complaints. The plantar pressure pattern as well as the Arch Index (AI) and the trajectory of the center of pressure during the stance phase were calculated and compared between both groups. Standardized pictures were taken from the feet to assess the height of the Medial Longitudinal Arch (MLA). We found that Malawian adults: (1) loaded the midfoot for a longer and the forefoot for a shorter period during roll off, (2) had significantly lower plantar pressures under the heel and a part of the forefoot, and (3) had a larger AI and a lower MLA compared to the Dutch. These findings demonstrate that differences in static foot geometry, foot loading, and roll off technique exist between the two groups. The advantage of the foot loading pattern as shown by the Malawian group is that the plantar pressure is distributed more equally over the foot. This might prevent foot complaints.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus