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Resistance to Dutch elm disease reduces presence of xylem endophytic fungi in Elms (Ulmus spp.).

Martín JA, Witzell J, Blumenstein K, Rozpedowska E, Helander M, Sieber TN, Gil L - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity.The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark.We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Silvopascicultura, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity. To address this issue, we compared the frequency and diversity of endophytic fungi and defensive phenolic metabolites in elm (Ulmus spp.) trees with genotypes known to differ in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Our results indicate that resistant U. minor and U. pumila genotypes exhibit a lower frequency and diversity of fungal endophytes in the xylem than susceptible U. minor genotypes. However, resistant and susceptible genotypes showed a similar frequency and diversity of endophytes in the leaves and bark. The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark. As the Dutch elm disease pathogen develops within xylem tissues, the defensive chemistry of resistant elm genotypes thus appears to be one of the factors that may limit colonization by both the pathogen and endophytes. We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Relation between endophytes and susceptibility to DED in elms.Relations between the mean susceptibility to DED (% leaf wilting) of each elm genotype at the Breeding Centre and its endophyte frequency (a) and diversity (b) in xylem tissues. Solid lines are linear regressions and dotted lines are 95% confidence limits. Wilting values were obtained from a previous susceptibility test [84].
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pone-0056987-g005: Relation between endophytes and susceptibility to DED in elms.Relations between the mean susceptibility to DED (% leaf wilting) of each elm genotype at the Breeding Centre and its endophyte frequency (a) and diversity (b) in xylem tissues. Solid lines are linear regressions and dotted lines are 95% confidence limits. Wilting values were obtained from a previous susceptibility test [84].

Mentions: In xylem tissues, the endophyte frequency and diversity of each genotype at the Breeding Centre were directly related with their mean susceptibility to DED (Fig. 5) (r = 0.659, P = 0.038; r = 0.727, P = 0.017, respectively).


Resistance to Dutch elm disease reduces presence of xylem endophytic fungi in Elms (Ulmus spp.).

Martín JA, Witzell J, Blumenstein K, Rozpedowska E, Helander M, Sieber TN, Gil L - PLoS ONE (2013)

Relation between endophytes and susceptibility to DED in elms.Relations between the mean susceptibility to DED (% leaf wilting) of each elm genotype at the Breeding Centre and its endophyte frequency (a) and diversity (b) in xylem tissues. Solid lines are linear regressions and dotted lines are 95% confidence limits. Wilting values were obtained from a previous susceptibility test [84].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585289&req=5

pone-0056987-g005: Relation between endophytes and susceptibility to DED in elms.Relations between the mean susceptibility to DED (% leaf wilting) of each elm genotype at the Breeding Centre and its endophyte frequency (a) and diversity (b) in xylem tissues. Solid lines are linear regressions and dotted lines are 95% confidence limits. Wilting values were obtained from a previous susceptibility test [84].
Mentions: In xylem tissues, the endophyte frequency and diversity of each genotype at the Breeding Centre were directly related with their mean susceptibility to DED (Fig. 5) (r = 0.659, P = 0.038; r = 0.727, P = 0.017, respectively).

Bottom Line: Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity.The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark.We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Silvopascicultura, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity. To address this issue, we compared the frequency and diversity of endophytic fungi and defensive phenolic metabolites in elm (Ulmus spp.) trees with genotypes known to differ in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Our results indicate that resistant U. minor and U. pumila genotypes exhibit a lower frequency and diversity of fungal endophytes in the xylem than susceptible U. minor genotypes. However, resistant and susceptible genotypes showed a similar frequency and diversity of endophytes in the leaves and bark. The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark. As the Dutch elm disease pathogen develops within xylem tissues, the defensive chemistry of resistant elm genotypes thus appears to be one of the factors that may limit colonization by both the pathogen and endophytes. We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus