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Resistance to Dutch elm disease reduces presence of xylem endophytic fungi in Elms (Ulmus spp.).

Martín JA, Witzell J, Blumenstein K, Rozpedowska E, Helander M, Sieber TN, Gil L - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity.The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark.We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Silvopascicultura, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity. To address this issue, we compared the frequency and diversity of endophytic fungi and defensive phenolic metabolites in elm (Ulmus spp.) trees with genotypes known to differ in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Our results indicate that resistant U. minor and U. pumila genotypes exhibit a lower frequency and diversity of fungal endophytes in the xylem than susceptible U. minor genotypes. However, resistant and susceptible genotypes showed a similar frequency and diversity of endophytes in the leaves and bark. The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark. As the Dutch elm disease pathogen develops within xylem tissues, the defensive chemistry of resistant elm genotypes thus appears to be one of the factors that may limit colonization by both the pathogen and endophytes. We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide.

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Endophyte frequency and diversity in elms.Mean values of endophyte frequency (a, c, e) and endophyte diversity (b, d, f) of leaf (a, b), bark (c, d), and xylem (e, f) tissues from different groups of elm trees: P (R) = resistant U. pumila clones from Puerta de Hierro Forest Breeding Centre; M (R) = resistant U. minor clones from Puerta de Hierro Forest Breeding Centre; M (S) = susceptible U. minor clones from Puerta de Hierro Forest Breeding Centre; and M (F) = U. minor trees from Rivas-Vaciamadrid field site. Different letters indicate differences among groups of trees (P<0.05), and bars represent standard errors.
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pone-0056987-g003: Endophyte frequency and diversity in elms.Mean values of endophyte frequency (a, c, e) and endophyte diversity (b, d, f) of leaf (a, b), bark (c, d), and xylem (e, f) tissues from different groups of elm trees: P (R) = resistant U. pumila clones from Puerta de Hierro Forest Breeding Centre; M (R) = resistant U. minor clones from Puerta de Hierro Forest Breeding Centre; M (S) = susceptible U. minor clones from Puerta de Hierro Forest Breeding Centre; and M (F) = U. minor trees from Rivas-Vaciamadrid field site. Different letters indicate differences among groups of trees (P<0.05), and bars represent standard errors.

Mentions: The endophyte frequency and diversity for each group of trees and tree organs were compared on basis of mean values and multiple range test comparisons (Fig. 3). In leaf tissues, the M (F) group showed a higher endophyte frequency than the other groups (P<0.05; Fig. 3a), and a higher endophyte diversity than the M (R) and M (S) groups (P<0.05; Fig. 3b). In bark tissues, no significant differences in endophyte frequency were observed between the groups (P>0.12; Fig. 3c), while M (S) showed higher diversity than the field population (P<0.05; Fig. 3d). In xylem tissues, both frequency and diversity values were higher in M (S) than in the rest of tree groups (P<0.05; Fig. 3e, f).


Resistance to Dutch elm disease reduces presence of xylem endophytic fungi in Elms (Ulmus spp.).

Martín JA, Witzell J, Blumenstein K, Rozpedowska E, Helander M, Sieber TN, Gil L - PLoS ONE (2013)

Endophyte frequency and diversity in elms.Mean values of endophyte frequency (a, c, e) and endophyte diversity (b, d, f) of leaf (a, b), bark (c, d), and xylem (e, f) tissues from different groups of elm trees: P (R) = resistant U. pumila clones from Puerta de Hierro Forest Breeding Centre; M (R) = resistant U. minor clones from Puerta de Hierro Forest Breeding Centre; M (S) = susceptible U. minor clones from Puerta de Hierro Forest Breeding Centre; and M (F) = U. minor trees from Rivas-Vaciamadrid field site. Different letters indicate differences among groups of trees (P<0.05), and bars represent standard errors.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585289&req=5

pone-0056987-g003: Endophyte frequency and diversity in elms.Mean values of endophyte frequency (a, c, e) and endophyte diversity (b, d, f) of leaf (a, b), bark (c, d), and xylem (e, f) tissues from different groups of elm trees: P (R) = resistant U. pumila clones from Puerta de Hierro Forest Breeding Centre; M (R) = resistant U. minor clones from Puerta de Hierro Forest Breeding Centre; M (S) = susceptible U. minor clones from Puerta de Hierro Forest Breeding Centre; and M (F) = U. minor trees from Rivas-Vaciamadrid field site. Different letters indicate differences among groups of trees (P<0.05), and bars represent standard errors.
Mentions: The endophyte frequency and diversity for each group of trees and tree organs were compared on basis of mean values and multiple range test comparisons (Fig. 3). In leaf tissues, the M (F) group showed a higher endophyte frequency than the other groups (P<0.05; Fig. 3a), and a higher endophyte diversity than the M (R) and M (S) groups (P<0.05; Fig. 3b). In bark tissues, no significant differences in endophyte frequency were observed between the groups (P>0.12; Fig. 3c), while M (S) showed higher diversity than the field population (P<0.05; Fig. 3d). In xylem tissues, both frequency and diversity values were higher in M (S) than in the rest of tree groups (P<0.05; Fig. 3e, f).

Bottom Line: Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity.The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark.We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Silvopascicultura, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity. To address this issue, we compared the frequency and diversity of endophytic fungi and defensive phenolic metabolites in elm (Ulmus spp.) trees with genotypes known to differ in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Our results indicate that resistant U. minor and U. pumila genotypes exhibit a lower frequency and diversity of fungal endophytes in the xylem than susceptible U. minor genotypes. However, resistant and susceptible genotypes showed a similar frequency and diversity of endophytes in the leaves and bark. The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark. As the Dutch elm disease pathogen develops within xylem tissues, the defensive chemistry of resistant elm genotypes thus appears to be one of the factors that may limit colonization by both the pathogen and endophytes. We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus