Limits...
Risk of exposure to eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus increases with the density of northern cardinals.

Estep LK, McClure CJ, Vander Kelen P, Burkett-Cadena ND, Sickerman S, Hernandez J, Jinright J, Hunt B, Lusk J, Hoover V, Armstrong K, Stark LM, Hill GE, Unnasch TR - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: For a variety of infectious diseases, the richness of the community of potential host species has emerged as an important factor in pathogen transmission, whereby a higher richness of host species is associated with a lowered disease risk.We found the highest support for the model that included the density of northern cardinals, a highly preferred host of mosquito vectors of EEEV, as a predictor variable.These results suggest that mosquito preferences for vertebrate hosts influence pathogen transmission.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America. estepl@science.oregonstate.edu

ABSTRACT
For a variety of infectious diseases, the richness of the community of potential host species has emerged as an important factor in pathogen transmission, whereby a higher richness of host species is associated with a lowered disease risk. The proposed mechanism driving this pattern is an increased likelihood in species-rich communities that infectious individuals will encounter dead-end hosts. Mosquito-borne pathogen systems potentially are exceptions to such "dilution effects" because mosquitoes vary their rates of use of vertebrate host species as bloodmeal sources relative to host availabilities. Such preferences may violate basic assumptions underlying the hypothesis of a dilution effect in pathogen systems. Here, we describe development of a model to predict exposure risk of sentinel chickens to eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) in Walton County, Florida between 2009 and 2010 using avian species richness as well as densities of individual host species potentially important to EEEV transmission as candidate predictor variables. We found the highest support for the model that included the density of northern cardinals, a highly preferred host of mosquito vectors of EEEV, as a predictor variable. The highest-ranking model also included Culiseta melanura abundance as a predictor variable. These results suggest that mosquito preferences for vertebrate hosts influence pathogen transmission.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Association between annual Culiseta melanura abundances.Scatterplot showing the relationship between Cs. melanura abundance from April to October 2009 at 24 sentinel sites in Walton County, Florida with Cs. melanura abundance from the same sentinel sites and the same sampling period during 2010. Abundances from the two years are highly correlated (Spearman Rank Test, rS = 0.63, p = 0.001). The best-fit line from simple linear regression is overlaid.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585233&req=5

pone-0057879-g002: Association between annual Culiseta melanura abundances.Scatterplot showing the relationship between Cs. melanura abundance from April to October 2009 at 24 sentinel sites in Walton County, Florida with Cs. melanura abundance from the same sentinel sites and the same sampling period during 2010. Abundances from the two years are highly correlated (Spearman Rank Test, rS = 0.63, p = 0.001). The best-fit line from simple linear regression is overlaid.

Mentions: We quantified Cs. melanura abundance at the sentinel sites. These data originated from overnight collections of mosquitoes from New Jersey light traps and CDC light traps baited with CO2 located directly adjacent to each sentinel site location between April and October of 2009 and 2010. Collected mosquitoes were stored on wet ice for transport to district laboratories and were then identified using standard morphological keys [36]. We used the average number of Cs. melanura collected during the April-October period in 2009 and 2010 at each trap as the Cs. melanura abundance candidate predictor variable in model development described below. Culiseta melanura abundance averages across both 2009 and 2010 were used as overall abundance estimates because there was no evidence to suggest that the ranking of sites in order of Cs. melanura abundances differed between these years (Spearman Rank Test, rS = 0.56, p = 0.004; Figure 2).


Risk of exposure to eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus increases with the density of northern cardinals.

Estep LK, McClure CJ, Vander Kelen P, Burkett-Cadena ND, Sickerman S, Hernandez J, Jinright J, Hunt B, Lusk J, Hoover V, Armstrong K, Stark LM, Hill GE, Unnasch TR - PLoS ONE (2013)

Association between annual Culiseta melanura abundances.Scatterplot showing the relationship between Cs. melanura abundance from April to October 2009 at 24 sentinel sites in Walton County, Florida with Cs. melanura abundance from the same sentinel sites and the same sampling period during 2010. Abundances from the two years are highly correlated (Spearman Rank Test, rS = 0.63, p = 0.001). The best-fit line from simple linear regression is overlaid.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585233&req=5

pone-0057879-g002: Association between annual Culiseta melanura abundances.Scatterplot showing the relationship between Cs. melanura abundance from April to October 2009 at 24 sentinel sites in Walton County, Florida with Cs. melanura abundance from the same sentinel sites and the same sampling period during 2010. Abundances from the two years are highly correlated (Spearman Rank Test, rS = 0.63, p = 0.001). The best-fit line from simple linear regression is overlaid.
Mentions: We quantified Cs. melanura abundance at the sentinel sites. These data originated from overnight collections of mosquitoes from New Jersey light traps and CDC light traps baited with CO2 located directly adjacent to each sentinel site location between April and October of 2009 and 2010. Collected mosquitoes were stored on wet ice for transport to district laboratories and were then identified using standard morphological keys [36]. We used the average number of Cs. melanura collected during the April-October period in 2009 and 2010 at each trap as the Cs. melanura abundance candidate predictor variable in model development described below. Culiseta melanura abundance averages across both 2009 and 2010 were used as overall abundance estimates because there was no evidence to suggest that the ranking of sites in order of Cs. melanura abundances differed between these years (Spearman Rank Test, rS = 0.56, p = 0.004; Figure 2).

Bottom Line: For a variety of infectious diseases, the richness of the community of potential host species has emerged as an important factor in pathogen transmission, whereby a higher richness of host species is associated with a lowered disease risk.We found the highest support for the model that included the density of northern cardinals, a highly preferred host of mosquito vectors of EEEV, as a predictor variable.These results suggest that mosquito preferences for vertebrate hosts influence pathogen transmission.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America. estepl@science.oregonstate.edu

ABSTRACT
For a variety of infectious diseases, the richness of the community of potential host species has emerged as an important factor in pathogen transmission, whereby a higher richness of host species is associated with a lowered disease risk. The proposed mechanism driving this pattern is an increased likelihood in species-rich communities that infectious individuals will encounter dead-end hosts. Mosquito-borne pathogen systems potentially are exceptions to such "dilution effects" because mosquitoes vary their rates of use of vertebrate host species as bloodmeal sources relative to host availabilities. Such preferences may violate basic assumptions underlying the hypothesis of a dilution effect in pathogen systems. Here, we describe development of a model to predict exposure risk of sentinel chickens to eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) in Walton County, Florida between 2009 and 2010 using avian species richness as well as densities of individual host species potentially important to EEEV transmission as candidate predictor variables. We found the highest support for the model that included the density of northern cardinals, a highly preferred host of mosquito vectors of EEEV, as a predictor variable. The highest-ranking model also included Culiseta melanura abundance as a predictor variable. These results suggest that mosquito preferences for vertebrate hosts influence pathogen transmission.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus