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Insight into the bacterial gut microbiome of the North American moose (Alces alces).

Ishaq SL, Wright AD - BMC Microbiol. (2012)

Bottom Line: Second generation (G2) PhyloChips were used to determine the presence of hundreds of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), representing multiple closely related species/strains (>97% identity), found in the rumen and colon of the moose.There were 73 OTUs, representing 21 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the rumen samples: Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae and several unclassified families, whereas there were 71 OTUs, representing 22 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the colon samples: Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and several unclassified families.Overall, there were 164 OTUs that were found in 100% of the samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Vermont, 203 Terrill Building, 570 Main Street, Burlington, VT 05405, USA. slpelleg@uvm.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: The work presented here provides the first intensive insight into the bacterial populations in the digestive tract of the North American moose (Alces alces). Eight free-range moose on natural pasture were sampled, producing eight rumen samples and six colon samples. Second generation (G2) PhyloChips were used to determine the presence of hundreds of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), representing multiple closely related species/strains (>97% identity), found in the rumen and colon of the moose.

Results: A total of 789 unique OTUs were used for analysis, which passed the fluorescence and the positive fraction thresholds. There were 73 OTUs, representing 21 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the rumen samples: Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae and several unclassified families, whereas there were 71 OTUs, representing 22 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the colon samples: Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and several unclassified families. Overall, there were 164 OTUs that were found in 100% of the samples. The Firmicutes were the most dominant bacteria phylum in both the rumen and the colon. Microarray data available at ArrayExpress, accession number E-MEXP-3721.

Conclusions: Using PhyloTrac and UniFrac computer software, samples clustered into two distinct groups: rumen and colon, confirming that the rumen and colon are distinct environments. There was an apparent correlation of age to cluster, which will be validated by a larger sample size in future studies, but there were no detectable trends based upon gender.

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Breakdown of unclassified families by phylum. (a) OTUs present in all 14 samples. There were 41 OTUs found exclusively in the rumen that were not classified down to the family level. (b) OTUs found exclusively in the rumen. There were 22 OTUs found exclusively in the rumen that were not classified down to the family level. (c) OTUs found exclusively in the colon. There were 19 OTUs found exclusively in the colon that were not classified down to the family level. Several are candidate phyla and are named by where they were discovered: AD3, soil in Virginia and Deleware, USA; OP3 and OP10, now Armatimonadetes, Obsidian Pool hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, USA; NC10, Null Arbor Caves, Australia; TM7, a peat bog in Gifhorn, Germany; WS3, a contaminated aquifer on Wurtsmith Air Force Base in Michigan, USA.
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Figure 2: Breakdown of unclassified families by phylum. (a) OTUs present in all 14 samples. There were 41 OTUs found exclusively in the rumen that were not classified down to the family level. (b) OTUs found exclusively in the rumen. There were 22 OTUs found exclusively in the rumen that were not classified down to the family level. (c) OTUs found exclusively in the colon. There were 19 OTUs found exclusively in the colon that were not classified down to the family level. Several are candidate phyla and are named by where they were discovered: AD3, soil in Virginia and Deleware, USA; OP3 and OP10, now Armatimonadetes, Obsidian Pool hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, USA; NC10, Null Arbor Caves, Australia; TM7, a peat bog in Gifhorn, Germany; WS3, a contaminated aquifer on Wurtsmith Air Force Base in Michigan, USA.

Mentions: A total of 789 unique OTUs were used for analysis which passed the fluorescence and the positive fraction thresholds. Total numbers for each taxonomic group found are listed for each sample (Table2), which represent raw data before initial screening. There were 789 total distinct OTUs that were found in all the samples combined; 267 Firmicutes, 225 Proteobacteria, and 72 Bacteroidetes being the major phyla. Not all OTUs were found in every sample, but out the total 789 OTUs there were 164 OTUs, comprising 25 bacterial families, which were found across all 14 samples (Figure1). The most abundant of these families were unclassified, 25%; Lachnospiraceae, 20%; Clostridiaceae, 16% and Peptostreptococcaceae, 7%. The remaining 21 families represented less than 4% each of the OTUs found in all 14 samples (Figure1). The OTUs with unclassified families were then classified by phyla; of the 25% of OTUs with unclassified families, the phyla Firmicutes represented 22%, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were 17% each, Bacteroidetes was 15%, and all others represented 5% or less (Figure2a).


Insight into the bacterial gut microbiome of the North American moose (Alces alces).

Ishaq SL, Wright AD - BMC Microbiol. (2012)

Breakdown of unclassified families by phylum. (a) OTUs present in all 14 samples. There were 41 OTUs found exclusively in the rumen that were not classified down to the family level. (b) OTUs found exclusively in the rumen. There were 22 OTUs found exclusively in the rumen that were not classified down to the family level. (c) OTUs found exclusively in the colon. There were 19 OTUs found exclusively in the colon that were not classified down to the family level. Several are candidate phyla and are named by where they were discovered: AD3, soil in Virginia and Deleware, USA; OP3 and OP10, now Armatimonadetes, Obsidian Pool hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, USA; NC10, Null Arbor Caves, Australia; TM7, a peat bog in Gifhorn, Germany; WS3, a contaminated aquifer on Wurtsmith Air Force Base in Michigan, USA.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585231&req=5

Figure 2: Breakdown of unclassified families by phylum. (a) OTUs present in all 14 samples. There were 41 OTUs found exclusively in the rumen that were not classified down to the family level. (b) OTUs found exclusively in the rumen. There were 22 OTUs found exclusively in the rumen that were not classified down to the family level. (c) OTUs found exclusively in the colon. There were 19 OTUs found exclusively in the colon that were not classified down to the family level. Several are candidate phyla and are named by where they were discovered: AD3, soil in Virginia and Deleware, USA; OP3 and OP10, now Armatimonadetes, Obsidian Pool hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, USA; NC10, Null Arbor Caves, Australia; TM7, a peat bog in Gifhorn, Germany; WS3, a contaminated aquifer on Wurtsmith Air Force Base in Michigan, USA.
Mentions: A total of 789 unique OTUs were used for analysis which passed the fluorescence and the positive fraction thresholds. Total numbers for each taxonomic group found are listed for each sample (Table2), which represent raw data before initial screening. There were 789 total distinct OTUs that were found in all the samples combined; 267 Firmicutes, 225 Proteobacteria, and 72 Bacteroidetes being the major phyla. Not all OTUs were found in every sample, but out the total 789 OTUs there were 164 OTUs, comprising 25 bacterial families, which were found across all 14 samples (Figure1). The most abundant of these families were unclassified, 25%; Lachnospiraceae, 20%; Clostridiaceae, 16% and Peptostreptococcaceae, 7%. The remaining 21 families represented less than 4% each of the OTUs found in all 14 samples (Figure1). The OTUs with unclassified families were then classified by phyla; of the 25% of OTUs with unclassified families, the phyla Firmicutes represented 22%, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were 17% each, Bacteroidetes was 15%, and all others represented 5% or less (Figure2a).

Bottom Line: Second generation (G2) PhyloChips were used to determine the presence of hundreds of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), representing multiple closely related species/strains (>97% identity), found in the rumen and colon of the moose.There were 73 OTUs, representing 21 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the rumen samples: Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae and several unclassified families, whereas there were 71 OTUs, representing 22 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the colon samples: Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and several unclassified families.Overall, there were 164 OTUs that were found in 100% of the samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Vermont, 203 Terrill Building, 570 Main Street, Burlington, VT 05405, USA. slpelleg@uvm.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: The work presented here provides the first intensive insight into the bacterial populations in the digestive tract of the North American moose (Alces alces). Eight free-range moose on natural pasture were sampled, producing eight rumen samples and six colon samples. Second generation (G2) PhyloChips were used to determine the presence of hundreds of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), representing multiple closely related species/strains (>97% identity), found in the rumen and colon of the moose.

Results: A total of 789 unique OTUs were used for analysis, which passed the fluorescence and the positive fraction thresholds. There were 73 OTUs, representing 21 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the rumen samples: Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae and several unclassified families, whereas there were 71 OTUs, representing 22 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the colon samples: Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and several unclassified families. Overall, there were 164 OTUs that were found in 100% of the samples. The Firmicutes were the most dominant bacteria phylum in both the rumen and the colon. Microarray data available at ArrayExpress, accession number E-MEXP-3721.

Conclusions: Using PhyloTrac and UniFrac computer software, samples clustered into two distinct groups: rumen and colon, confirming that the rumen and colon are distinct environments. There was an apparent correlation of age to cluster, which will be validated by a larger sample size in future studies, but there were no detectable trends based upon gender.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus