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Impact of chronodisruption during primate pregnancy on the maternal and newborn temperature rhythms.

Serón-Ferré M, Forcelledo ML, Torres-Farfan C, Valenzuela FJ, Rojas A, Vergara M, Rojas-Garcia PP, Recabarren MP, Valenzuela GJ - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: In addition, mean temperature was decreased (34.0±0.6 vs 36.1±0.2°C, in LL and control, respectively P<0.05).Our findings demonstrate that prenatal melatonin is a Zeitgeber for the newborn temperature rhythm and supports normal body temperature maintenance.Altogether these prenatal melatonin effects highlight the physiological importance of the maternal melatonin rhythm during pregnancy for the newborn primate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Fisiopatología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. mseron@med.uchile.cl

ABSTRACT
Disruption of the maternal environment during pregnancy is a key contributor to offspring diseases that develop in adult life. To explore the impact of chronodisruption during pregnancy in primates, we exposed pregnant capuchin monkeys to constant light (eliminating the maternal melatonin rhythm) from the last third of gestation to term. Maternal temperature and activity circadian rhythms were assessed as well as the newborn temperature rhythm. Additionally we studied the effect of daily maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy on these rhythms. Ten pregnant capuchin monkeys were exposed to constant light from 60% of gestation to term. Five received a daily oral dose of melatonin (250 µg kg/body weight) at 1800 h (LL+Mel) and the other five a placebo (LL). Six additional pregnant females were maintained in a 14∶10 light:dark cycles and their newborns were used as controls (LD). Rhythms were recorded 96 h before delivery in the mother and at 4-6 days of age in the newborn. Exposure to constant light had no effect on the maternal body temperature rhythm however it delayed the acrophase of the activity rhythm. Neither rhythm was affected by melatonin replacement. In contrast, maternal exposure to constant light affected the newborn body temperature rhythm. This rhythm was entrained in control newborns whereas LL newborns showed a random distribution of the acrophases over 24-h. In addition, mean temperature was decreased (34.0±0.6 vs 36.1±0.2°C, in LL and control, respectively P<0.05). Maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy re-synchronized the acrophases and restored mean temperature to the values in control newborns. Our findings demonstrate that prenatal melatonin is a Zeitgeber for the newborn temperature rhythm and supports normal body temperature maintenance. Altogether these prenatal melatonin effects highlight the physiological importance of the maternal melatonin rhythm during pregnancy for the newborn primate.

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Mean ± SE temperature in pregnant capuchin monkeys 96 hours before delivery.Temperature was measured at 15 min intervals by telemetry. Integrated one h values were used to depict the rhythm. LD: females maintained in light:dark 14∶10 during pregnancy; LL: females maintained in constant light during pregnancy; LL+M: LL females receiving a daily melatonin replacement at 1800 h. Shaded bars represent light off. Φ indicates the acrophase. The continuous line represents the theoretical 24-h cosinor function fitting the data. The clocks at the right of the figure show the distribution of acrophases of the individual temperature rhythms in each group of females. An arrow denotes the timing of the mean acrophase.
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pone-0057710-g002: Mean ± SE temperature in pregnant capuchin monkeys 96 hours before delivery.Temperature was measured at 15 min intervals by telemetry. Integrated one h values were used to depict the rhythm. LD: females maintained in light:dark 14∶10 during pregnancy; LL: females maintained in constant light during pregnancy; LL+M: LL females receiving a daily melatonin replacement at 1800 h. Shaded bars represent light off. Φ indicates the acrophase. The continuous line represents the theoretical 24-h cosinor function fitting the data. The clocks at the right of the figure show the distribution of acrophases of the individual temperature rhythms in each group of females. An arrow denotes the timing of the mean acrophase.

Mentions: Exposure to constant light on the pregnant female had no effect on their circadian body temperature rhythm. In the three groups of pregnant females, acrophases were distributed between 1700–1800 h (P<0.05, Rayleigh’s test for each treatment) and amplitude of the rhythm was similar. Body temperature rhythms were also detected in the mean data by ANOVA for repeated measures (P<0.05). As shown in Figure 2, mean data fitted a cosine function in LD, LL and LL+Mel treated pregnant females (R2 0.96, 0.95, 0.89 respectively). Daily maternal melatonin administration did not change the timing of the acrophases of the activity and temperature rhythms but it slightly decreased the mesor of the maternal temperature rhythm (Table 2). The exposure to constant light altered phase relationship between the locomotor activity and temperature rhythms. Under LD conditions the acrophase of locomotor activity rhythm preceded that of the temperature rhythm. Under constant light the acrophase of both rhythms coincided regardless of melatonin treatment (Table 2).


Impact of chronodisruption during primate pregnancy on the maternal and newborn temperature rhythms.

Serón-Ferré M, Forcelledo ML, Torres-Farfan C, Valenzuela FJ, Rojas A, Vergara M, Rojas-Garcia PP, Recabarren MP, Valenzuela GJ - PLoS ONE (2013)

Mean ± SE temperature in pregnant capuchin monkeys 96 hours before delivery.Temperature was measured at 15 min intervals by telemetry. Integrated one h values were used to depict the rhythm. LD: females maintained in light:dark 14∶10 during pregnancy; LL: females maintained in constant light during pregnancy; LL+M: LL females receiving a daily melatonin replacement at 1800 h. Shaded bars represent light off. Φ indicates the acrophase. The continuous line represents the theoretical 24-h cosinor function fitting the data. The clocks at the right of the figure show the distribution of acrophases of the individual temperature rhythms in each group of females. An arrow denotes the timing of the mean acrophase.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585206&req=5

pone-0057710-g002: Mean ± SE temperature in pregnant capuchin monkeys 96 hours before delivery.Temperature was measured at 15 min intervals by telemetry. Integrated one h values were used to depict the rhythm. LD: females maintained in light:dark 14∶10 during pregnancy; LL: females maintained in constant light during pregnancy; LL+M: LL females receiving a daily melatonin replacement at 1800 h. Shaded bars represent light off. Φ indicates the acrophase. The continuous line represents the theoretical 24-h cosinor function fitting the data. The clocks at the right of the figure show the distribution of acrophases of the individual temperature rhythms in each group of females. An arrow denotes the timing of the mean acrophase.
Mentions: Exposure to constant light on the pregnant female had no effect on their circadian body temperature rhythm. In the three groups of pregnant females, acrophases were distributed between 1700–1800 h (P<0.05, Rayleigh’s test for each treatment) and amplitude of the rhythm was similar. Body temperature rhythms were also detected in the mean data by ANOVA for repeated measures (P<0.05). As shown in Figure 2, mean data fitted a cosine function in LD, LL and LL+Mel treated pregnant females (R2 0.96, 0.95, 0.89 respectively). Daily maternal melatonin administration did not change the timing of the acrophases of the activity and temperature rhythms but it slightly decreased the mesor of the maternal temperature rhythm (Table 2). The exposure to constant light altered phase relationship between the locomotor activity and temperature rhythms. Under LD conditions the acrophase of locomotor activity rhythm preceded that of the temperature rhythm. Under constant light the acrophase of both rhythms coincided regardless of melatonin treatment (Table 2).

Bottom Line: In addition, mean temperature was decreased (34.0±0.6 vs 36.1±0.2°C, in LL and control, respectively P<0.05).Our findings demonstrate that prenatal melatonin is a Zeitgeber for the newborn temperature rhythm and supports normal body temperature maintenance.Altogether these prenatal melatonin effects highlight the physiological importance of the maternal melatonin rhythm during pregnancy for the newborn primate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Fisiopatología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. mseron@med.uchile.cl

ABSTRACT
Disruption of the maternal environment during pregnancy is a key contributor to offspring diseases that develop in adult life. To explore the impact of chronodisruption during pregnancy in primates, we exposed pregnant capuchin monkeys to constant light (eliminating the maternal melatonin rhythm) from the last third of gestation to term. Maternal temperature and activity circadian rhythms were assessed as well as the newborn temperature rhythm. Additionally we studied the effect of daily maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy on these rhythms. Ten pregnant capuchin monkeys were exposed to constant light from 60% of gestation to term. Five received a daily oral dose of melatonin (250 µg kg/body weight) at 1800 h (LL+Mel) and the other five a placebo (LL). Six additional pregnant females were maintained in a 14∶10 light:dark cycles and their newborns were used as controls (LD). Rhythms were recorded 96 h before delivery in the mother and at 4-6 days of age in the newborn. Exposure to constant light had no effect on the maternal body temperature rhythm however it delayed the acrophase of the activity rhythm. Neither rhythm was affected by melatonin replacement. In contrast, maternal exposure to constant light affected the newborn body temperature rhythm. This rhythm was entrained in control newborns whereas LL newborns showed a random distribution of the acrophases over 24-h. In addition, mean temperature was decreased (34.0±0.6 vs 36.1±0.2°C, in LL and control, respectively P<0.05). Maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy re-synchronized the acrophases and restored mean temperature to the values in control newborns. Our findings demonstrate that prenatal melatonin is a Zeitgeber for the newborn temperature rhythm and supports normal body temperature maintenance. Altogether these prenatal melatonin effects highlight the physiological importance of the maternal melatonin rhythm during pregnancy for the newborn primate.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus