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Dispersal of the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in mainland China as inferred from molecular data and associations to indices of human activity.

Hu SJ, Ning T, Fu DY, Haack RA, Zhang Z, Chen DD, Ma XY, Ye H - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes.Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system) in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior.In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were infested with PWN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biological Invasion and Ecosecurity, Yunnan University, Kunming, China.

ABSTRACT
The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an important forest pest as well as the principal vector of the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer), in mainland China. Despite the economic importance of this insect-disease complex, only a few studies are available on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus and the relationship between its historic dispersal pattern and various human activities. The aim of the present study was to further explore aspects of human activity on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus in mainland China. The molecular data based on the combined mitochondrial cox1 and cox2 gene fragments from 140 individuals representing 14 Chinese populations yielded 54 haplotypes. Overall, a historical (natural) expansion that originated from China's eastern coast to the western interior was revealed by the haplotype network, as well as several recent, long-distant population exchanges. Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes. Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system) in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior. In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were infested with PWN.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Depicted are the median joining networks of the 54 haplotypes of M. alternatus as categorized by (A) the geographical regions of mainland China, (B) the regional economic status, and (C) the regional freight turnover of the 14 provinces within the study region.Node size is proportional to the number of individuals contained in each haplotype; the numbers of haplotypes correspond to the data presented in Table 2.
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pone-0057568-g003: Depicted are the median joining networks of the 54 haplotypes of M. alternatus as categorized by (A) the geographical regions of mainland China, (B) the regional economic status, and (C) the regional freight turnover of the 14 provinces within the study region.Node size is proportional to the number of individuals contained in each haplotype; the numbers of haplotypes correspond to the data presented in Table 2.

Mentions: The median joining network was not clearly structured as evidenced by having at least five loops, nine missing haplotypes (median vectors), and no defined haplogroups. When categorized by the geographical regions of mainland China, the median joining network clearly showed that H10 or H34 from the eastern populations were the ancestry haplotypes based on their direct connection to the outgroup, and a natural (historical) population expansion that occurred from eastern China to central China and then to southern and southwestern China. This network also suggested the existence of human-mediated (recent) dispersal as evidenced by a haplotype shared by geographically distant populations (H42) (Fig. 3A).


Dispersal of the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in mainland China as inferred from molecular data and associations to indices of human activity.

Hu SJ, Ning T, Fu DY, Haack RA, Zhang Z, Chen DD, Ma XY, Ye H - PLoS ONE (2013)

Depicted are the median joining networks of the 54 haplotypes of M. alternatus as categorized by (A) the geographical regions of mainland China, (B) the regional economic status, and (C) the regional freight turnover of the 14 provinces within the study region.Node size is proportional to the number of individuals contained in each haplotype; the numbers of haplotypes correspond to the data presented in Table 2.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585188&req=5

pone-0057568-g003: Depicted are the median joining networks of the 54 haplotypes of M. alternatus as categorized by (A) the geographical regions of mainland China, (B) the regional economic status, and (C) the regional freight turnover of the 14 provinces within the study region.Node size is proportional to the number of individuals contained in each haplotype; the numbers of haplotypes correspond to the data presented in Table 2.
Mentions: The median joining network was not clearly structured as evidenced by having at least five loops, nine missing haplotypes (median vectors), and no defined haplogroups. When categorized by the geographical regions of mainland China, the median joining network clearly showed that H10 or H34 from the eastern populations were the ancestry haplotypes based on their direct connection to the outgroup, and a natural (historical) population expansion that occurred from eastern China to central China and then to southern and southwestern China. This network also suggested the existence of human-mediated (recent) dispersal as evidenced by a haplotype shared by geographically distant populations (H42) (Fig. 3A).

Bottom Line: Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes.Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system) in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior.In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were infested with PWN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biological Invasion and Ecosecurity, Yunnan University, Kunming, China.

ABSTRACT
The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an important forest pest as well as the principal vector of the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer), in mainland China. Despite the economic importance of this insect-disease complex, only a few studies are available on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus and the relationship between its historic dispersal pattern and various human activities. The aim of the present study was to further explore aspects of human activity on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus in mainland China. The molecular data based on the combined mitochondrial cox1 and cox2 gene fragments from 140 individuals representing 14 Chinese populations yielded 54 haplotypes. Overall, a historical (natural) expansion that originated from China's eastern coast to the western interior was revealed by the haplotype network, as well as several recent, long-distant population exchanges. Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes. Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system) in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior. In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were infested with PWN.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus