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Dispersal of the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in mainland China as inferred from molecular data and associations to indices of human activity.

Hu SJ, Ning T, Fu DY, Haack RA, Zhang Z, Chen DD, Ma XY, Ye H - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes.Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system) in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior.In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were infested with PWN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biological Invasion and Ecosecurity, Yunnan University, Kunming, China.

ABSTRACT
The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an important forest pest as well as the principal vector of the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer), in mainland China. Despite the economic importance of this insect-disease complex, only a few studies are available on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus and the relationship between its historic dispersal pattern and various human activities. The aim of the present study was to further explore aspects of human activity on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus in mainland China. The molecular data based on the combined mitochondrial cox1 and cox2 gene fragments from 140 individuals representing 14 Chinese populations yielded 54 haplotypes. Overall, a historical (natural) expansion that originated from China's eastern coast to the western interior was revealed by the haplotype network, as well as several recent, long-distant population exchanges. Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes. Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system) in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior. In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were infested with PWN.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Provincial outline map of our research area in China, indicating the location of the 14 sampling sites as well as the three major rivers in the area (from north to south, Yellow River, Yangtze River, and Pearl River).The two-letter codes correspond to those listed in Table 1. The city Nanjing was marked with a solid star to represent the first reported PWN outbreak area in mainland China.
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pone-0057568-g001: Provincial outline map of our research area in China, indicating the location of the 14 sampling sites as well as the three major rivers in the area (from north to south, Yellow River, Yangtze River, and Pearl River).The two-letter codes correspond to those listed in Table 1. The city Nanjing was marked with a solid star to represent the first reported PWN outbreak area in mainland China.

Mentions: Fourteen Chinese provinces were selected to cover the major distribution range of M. alternatus and PWN in mainland China [5], [7] (Table 1; Fig. 1). Ten individual M. alternatus adults were collected from each site with assistance from the local forestry administrations and forest academies using flight-intercept traps (Chinese Academy of Forestry, Zhejiang, China; Fujian Academy of Forestry Sciences, Fujian, China) baited with either the M99-1 bait (Chinese Academy of Forestry) or FJ-Ma-02 bait (Fujian Academy of Forestry Sciences) [19]–[21]. The main attractants in these baits include α-pinene, β-pinene, and ethanol. The traps were placed in the same pine forests at each location from late March to early October in 2010 and 2011, and were checked weekly for adult beetles.


Dispersal of the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in mainland China as inferred from molecular data and associations to indices of human activity.

Hu SJ, Ning T, Fu DY, Haack RA, Zhang Z, Chen DD, Ma XY, Ye H - PLoS ONE (2013)

Provincial outline map of our research area in China, indicating the location of the 14 sampling sites as well as the three major rivers in the area (from north to south, Yellow River, Yangtze River, and Pearl River).The two-letter codes correspond to those listed in Table 1. The city Nanjing was marked with a solid star to represent the first reported PWN outbreak area in mainland China.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585188&req=5

pone-0057568-g001: Provincial outline map of our research area in China, indicating the location of the 14 sampling sites as well as the three major rivers in the area (from north to south, Yellow River, Yangtze River, and Pearl River).The two-letter codes correspond to those listed in Table 1. The city Nanjing was marked with a solid star to represent the first reported PWN outbreak area in mainland China.
Mentions: Fourteen Chinese provinces were selected to cover the major distribution range of M. alternatus and PWN in mainland China [5], [7] (Table 1; Fig. 1). Ten individual M. alternatus adults were collected from each site with assistance from the local forestry administrations and forest academies using flight-intercept traps (Chinese Academy of Forestry, Zhejiang, China; Fujian Academy of Forestry Sciences, Fujian, China) baited with either the M99-1 bait (Chinese Academy of Forestry) or FJ-Ma-02 bait (Fujian Academy of Forestry Sciences) [19]–[21]. The main attractants in these baits include α-pinene, β-pinene, and ethanol. The traps were placed in the same pine forests at each location from late March to early October in 2010 and 2011, and were checked weekly for adult beetles.

Bottom Line: Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes.Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system) in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior.In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were infested with PWN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biological Invasion and Ecosecurity, Yunnan University, Kunming, China.

ABSTRACT
The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an important forest pest as well as the principal vector of the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer), in mainland China. Despite the economic importance of this insect-disease complex, only a few studies are available on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus and the relationship between its historic dispersal pattern and various human activities. The aim of the present study was to further explore aspects of human activity on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus in mainland China. The molecular data based on the combined mitochondrial cox1 and cox2 gene fragments from 140 individuals representing 14 Chinese populations yielded 54 haplotypes. Overall, a historical (natural) expansion that originated from China's eastern coast to the western interior was revealed by the haplotype network, as well as several recent, long-distant population exchanges. Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes. Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system) in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior. In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were infested with PWN.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus