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Lipid content and composition of oocytes from five coral species: potential implications for future cryopreservation efforts.

Lin C, Wang LH, Meng PJ, Chen CS, Tsai S - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Wax esters, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and fatty acids were all measured at detectable levels, and the latter were produced at significantly elevated quantities in E. gemmacea, E. aspera, and O. lacera.On the other hand, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and wax ester were found at significantly higher concentrations in A. expansa oocytes.Interestingly, the total lipid content of oocytes from all five scleractinians was significantly lower than that of oocytes of two gorgonian species, Junceella juncea and Junceella fragilis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Museum of Marine Biology & Aquarium, Checheng, Pingtung, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Given the previously documented importance of lipid concentration and composition in the successful cryopreservation of gorgonian corals, these parameters were assessed in oocytes of five species of scleractinian coral; Platygyra daedalea, Echinopora gemmacea, Echinophyllia aspera, Oxypora lacera and Astreopora expansa. Wax esters, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and fatty acids were all measured at detectable levels, and the latter were produced at significantly elevated quantities in E. gemmacea, E. aspera, and O. lacera. On the other hand, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and wax ester were found at significantly higher concentrations in A. expansa oocytes. Triacylglycerol was not present in any species. Interestingly, the total lipid content of oocytes from all five scleractinians was significantly lower than that of oocytes of two gorgonian species, Junceella juncea and Junceella fragilis. As higher total lipid concentrations may be correlated with greater degrees of cellular membrane fluidity at lower temperatures, it stands to reason that gorgonian coral oocytes may be more likely to survive the cryopreservation process than oocytes of scleractinian corals.

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Concentrations of total lipids (TL), wax esters (WE), fatty acids (FA), phosphatidyethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylcholine (PC) extracted from oocytes of P. daedalea, E. gemmacea, E. aspera, O. lacera, and A. expansa.Error bars indicate standard error of the mean. Statistically significant differences (Tukey’s HSD, p<0.05) within each lipid species are denoted by letter groups.
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pone-0057823-g002: Concentrations of total lipids (TL), wax esters (WE), fatty acids (FA), phosphatidyethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylcholine (PC) extracted from oocytes of P. daedalea, E. gemmacea, E. aspera, O. lacera, and A. expansa.Error bars indicate standard error of the mean. Statistically significant differences (Tukey’s HSD, p<0.05) within each lipid species are denoted by letter groups.

Mentions: The total lipid concentration of oocytes from P. daedalea (0.30±0.02 mg/mm3/oocyte) was significantly lower (Tukey’s HSD, p>0.05) than those of oocytes of A. expansa and E. aspera (0.49±0.06 and 0.42±0.03 mg/mm3/oocyte, respectively), whilst the total lipid concentration of E. gemmacea (0.36±0.05 mg/mm3/oocyte) did not differ significantly from any of the other species (Fig. 2). The concentration of FA (Fig. 2) was significantly higher (p>0.05) in E. gemmacea, E. aspera, and O. lacera oocytes (38.14±6.10, 36.72±4.52 and 34.62±2.89 µg/mm3/oocyte, respectively) compared to those of A. expansa (19.19±1.90 µg/mm3/oocyte). The absolute concentrations of PE and PC were significantly higher (p>0.05) in A. expansa (58.70±8.50 and 7.12±0.06 µg/mm3/oocyte, respectively) than in oocytes of the other species, whose PE and PC concentrations ranged from 19.54±5.28 to 30.59±2.03 µg/mm3/oocyte and from 2.14±0.02 to 2.56±0.05 µg/mm3/oocyte, respectively. PE concentration did not differ significantly between oocytes of P. daedalea, E. gemmacea, E. aspera, and O. lacera (Fig. 2). On the other hand, the concentration of WE was significantly higher in oocytes of A. expansa (16.50±1.40 µg/mm3/oocyte) compared with those of the other species, whose concentrations ranged from 8.53±0.49 to 11.50±0.90 µg/mm3/oocyte (Fig. 2).


Lipid content and composition of oocytes from five coral species: potential implications for future cryopreservation efforts.

Lin C, Wang LH, Meng PJ, Chen CS, Tsai S - PLoS ONE (2013)

Concentrations of total lipids (TL), wax esters (WE), fatty acids (FA), phosphatidyethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylcholine (PC) extracted from oocytes of P. daedalea, E. gemmacea, E. aspera, O. lacera, and A. expansa.Error bars indicate standard error of the mean. Statistically significant differences (Tukey’s HSD, p<0.05) within each lipid species are denoted by letter groups.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585170&req=5

pone-0057823-g002: Concentrations of total lipids (TL), wax esters (WE), fatty acids (FA), phosphatidyethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylcholine (PC) extracted from oocytes of P. daedalea, E. gemmacea, E. aspera, O. lacera, and A. expansa.Error bars indicate standard error of the mean. Statistically significant differences (Tukey’s HSD, p<0.05) within each lipid species are denoted by letter groups.
Mentions: The total lipid concentration of oocytes from P. daedalea (0.30±0.02 mg/mm3/oocyte) was significantly lower (Tukey’s HSD, p>0.05) than those of oocytes of A. expansa and E. aspera (0.49±0.06 and 0.42±0.03 mg/mm3/oocyte, respectively), whilst the total lipid concentration of E. gemmacea (0.36±0.05 mg/mm3/oocyte) did not differ significantly from any of the other species (Fig. 2). The concentration of FA (Fig. 2) was significantly higher (p>0.05) in E. gemmacea, E. aspera, and O. lacera oocytes (38.14±6.10, 36.72±4.52 and 34.62±2.89 µg/mm3/oocyte, respectively) compared to those of A. expansa (19.19±1.90 µg/mm3/oocyte). The absolute concentrations of PE and PC were significantly higher (p>0.05) in A. expansa (58.70±8.50 and 7.12±0.06 µg/mm3/oocyte, respectively) than in oocytes of the other species, whose PE and PC concentrations ranged from 19.54±5.28 to 30.59±2.03 µg/mm3/oocyte and from 2.14±0.02 to 2.56±0.05 µg/mm3/oocyte, respectively. PE concentration did not differ significantly between oocytes of P. daedalea, E. gemmacea, E. aspera, and O. lacera (Fig. 2). On the other hand, the concentration of WE was significantly higher in oocytes of A. expansa (16.50±1.40 µg/mm3/oocyte) compared with those of the other species, whose concentrations ranged from 8.53±0.49 to 11.50±0.90 µg/mm3/oocyte (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: Wax esters, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and fatty acids were all measured at detectable levels, and the latter were produced at significantly elevated quantities in E. gemmacea, E. aspera, and O. lacera.On the other hand, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and wax ester were found at significantly higher concentrations in A. expansa oocytes.Interestingly, the total lipid content of oocytes from all five scleractinians was significantly lower than that of oocytes of two gorgonian species, Junceella juncea and Junceella fragilis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Museum of Marine Biology & Aquarium, Checheng, Pingtung, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Given the previously documented importance of lipid concentration and composition in the successful cryopreservation of gorgonian corals, these parameters were assessed in oocytes of five species of scleractinian coral; Platygyra daedalea, Echinopora gemmacea, Echinophyllia aspera, Oxypora lacera and Astreopora expansa. Wax esters, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and fatty acids were all measured at detectable levels, and the latter were produced at significantly elevated quantities in E. gemmacea, E. aspera, and O. lacera. On the other hand, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and wax ester were found at significantly higher concentrations in A. expansa oocytes. Triacylglycerol was not present in any species. Interestingly, the total lipid content of oocytes from all five scleractinians was significantly lower than that of oocytes of two gorgonian species, Junceella juncea and Junceella fragilis. As higher total lipid concentrations may be correlated with greater degrees of cellular membrane fluidity at lower temperatures, it stands to reason that gorgonian coral oocytes may be more likely to survive the cryopreservation process than oocytes of scleractinian corals.

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