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Decomposing Indigenous life expectancy gap by risk factors: a life table analysis.

Zhao Y, Wright J, Begg S, Guthridge S - Popul Health Metr (2013)

Bottom Line: The standard life table and cause decomposition technique was used to examine the individual and joint effects on health inequality.Improving socioeconomic status, smoking cessation, and overweight reduction are critical to closing the Indigenous LE gap.This paper presents a useful way to explain the impact of risk factors of health inequalities, and suggests that reducing poverty should be placed squarely at the centre of the strategies to close the Indigenous LE gap.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Gains Planning Branch, Northern Territory Department of Health, Darwin Plaza, 1st Floor, Smith St Mall, Darwin, NT 0801, Australia. yuejen.zhao@nt.gov.au.

ABSTRACT

Background: The estimated gap in life expectancy (LE) between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians was 12 years for men and 10 years for women, whereas the Northern Territory Indigenous LE gap was at least 50% greater than the national figures. This study aims to explain the Indigenous LE gap by common modifiable risk factors.

Methods: This study covered the period from 1986 to 2005. Unit record death data from the Northern Territory were used to assess the differences in LE at birth between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations by socioeconomic disadvantage, smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, pollution, and intimate partner violence. The population attributable fractions were applied to estimate the numbers of deaths associated with the selected risks. The standard life table and cause decomposition technique was used to examine the individual and joint effects on health inequality.

Results: The findings from this study indicate that among the selected risk factors, socioeconomic disadvantage was the leading health risk and accounted for one-third to one-half of the Indigenous LE gap. A combination of all six selected risks explained over 60% of the Indigenous LE gap.

Conclusions: Improving socioeconomic status, smoking cessation, and overweight reduction are critical to closing the Indigenous LE gap. This paper presents a useful way to explain the impact of risk factors of health inequalities, and suggests that reducing poverty should be placed squarely at the centre of the strategies to close the Indigenous LE gap.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Indigenous life expectancy gap decomposed by six health risks for (a) male and (b) female, Northern Territory, Australia, 1986-2005.
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Figure 1: Indigenous life expectancy gap decomposed by six health risks for (a) male and (b) female, Northern Territory, Australia, 1986-2005.

Mentions: Table 3 provides details of decomposed LE differences between NT Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations with 95% confidence intervals. During 1986 to 2005, Indigenous LEs were consistently lower than non-Indigenous expectancies. The gaps in LE at birth were large, being around 16 years for males and 19 years for females. Between 1996 and 2005, there was little improvement in the Indigenous male LE, which did not keep pace with its non-Indigenous counterpart (see Figure 1a). In contrast, the female LE gap narrowed markedly (see Figure 1b). Thus, it appears that the Indigenous LE gaps marginally deteriorated for males but improved for females over this period (P<0.05).


Decomposing Indigenous life expectancy gap by risk factors: a life table analysis.

Zhao Y, Wright J, Begg S, Guthridge S - Popul Health Metr (2013)

Indigenous life expectancy gap decomposed by six health risks for (a) male and (b) female, Northern Territory, Australia, 1986-2005.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585166&req=5

Figure 1: Indigenous life expectancy gap decomposed by six health risks for (a) male and (b) female, Northern Territory, Australia, 1986-2005.
Mentions: Table 3 provides details of decomposed LE differences between NT Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations with 95% confidence intervals. During 1986 to 2005, Indigenous LEs were consistently lower than non-Indigenous expectancies. The gaps in LE at birth were large, being around 16 years for males and 19 years for females. Between 1996 and 2005, there was little improvement in the Indigenous male LE, which did not keep pace with its non-Indigenous counterpart (see Figure 1a). In contrast, the female LE gap narrowed markedly (see Figure 1b). Thus, it appears that the Indigenous LE gaps marginally deteriorated for males but improved for females over this period (P<0.05).

Bottom Line: The standard life table and cause decomposition technique was used to examine the individual and joint effects on health inequality.Improving socioeconomic status, smoking cessation, and overweight reduction are critical to closing the Indigenous LE gap.This paper presents a useful way to explain the impact of risk factors of health inequalities, and suggests that reducing poverty should be placed squarely at the centre of the strategies to close the Indigenous LE gap.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Gains Planning Branch, Northern Territory Department of Health, Darwin Plaza, 1st Floor, Smith St Mall, Darwin, NT 0801, Australia. yuejen.zhao@nt.gov.au.

ABSTRACT

Background: The estimated gap in life expectancy (LE) between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians was 12 years for men and 10 years for women, whereas the Northern Territory Indigenous LE gap was at least 50% greater than the national figures. This study aims to explain the Indigenous LE gap by common modifiable risk factors.

Methods: This study covered the period from 1986 to 2005. Unit record death data from the Northern Territory were used to assess the differences in LE at birth between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations by socioeconomic disadvantage, smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, pollution, and intimate partner violence. The population attributable fractions were applied to estimate the numbers of deaths associated with the selected risks. The standard life table and cause decomposition technique was used to examine the individual and joint effects on health inequality.

Results: The findings from this study indicate that among the selected risk factors, socioeconomic disadvantage was the leading health risk and accounted for one-third to one-half of the Indigenous LE gap. A combination of all six selected risks explained over 60% of the Indigenous LE gap.

Conclusions: Improving socioeconomic status, smoking cessation, and overweight reduction are critical to closing the Indigenous LE gap. This paper presents a useful way to explain the impact of risk factors of health inequalities, and suggests that reducing poverty should be placed squarely at the centre of the strategies to close the Indigenous LE gap.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus