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Genome-wide analysis points to roles for extracellular matrix remodeling, the visual cycle, and neuronal development in myopia.

Kiefer AK, Tung JY, Do CB, Hinds DA, Mountain JL, Francke U, Eriksson N - PLoS Genet. (2013)

Bottom Line: Myopia, or nearsightedness, is the most common eye disorder, resulting primarily from excess elongation of the eye.Ten of the 20 novel associations identified replicate in a separate cohort of 8,323 participants who reported if they had developed myopia before age 10.One association is in the gene PRSS56, which has previously been linked to abnormally small eyes; one is in a gene that forms part of the extracellular matrix (LAMA2); two are in or near genes involved in the regeneration of 11-cis-retinal (RGR and RDH5); two are near genes known to be involved in the growth and guidance of retinal ganglion cells (ZIC2, SFRP1); and five are in or near genes involved in neuronal signaling or development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 23andMe, Mountain View, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is the most common eye disorder, resulting primarily from excess elongation of the eye. The etiology of myopia, although known to be complex, is poorly understood. Here we report the largest ever genome-wide association study (45,771 participants) on myopia in Europeans. We performed a survival analysis on age of myopia onset and identified 22 significant associations ([Formula: see text]), two of which are replications of earlier associations with refractive error. Ten of the 20 novel associations identified replicate in a separate cohort of 8,323 participants who reported if they had developed myopia before age 10. These 22 associations in total explain 2.9% of the variance in myopia age of onset and point toward a number of different mechanisms behind the development of myopia. One association is in the gene PRSS56, which has previously been linked to abnormally small eyes; one is in a gene that forms part of the extracellular matrix (LAMA2); two are in or near genes involved in the regeneration of 11-cis-retinal (RGR and RDH5); two are near genes known to be involved in the growth and guidance of retinal ganglion cells (ZIC2, SFRP1); and five are in or near genes involved in neuronal signaling or development. These novel findings point toward multiple genetic factors involved in the development of myopia and suggest that complex interactions between extracellular matrix remodeling, neuronal development, and visual signals from the retina may underlie the development of myopia in humans.

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Estimated survival curves by genetic propensity score.The genetic propensity score is computed as the number of risk alleles across the 22 genome-wide significant SNPs. Curves show estimated survival probability (i.e., the probability of not having developed myopia) by age under the fitted Cox model for the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of scores (15.01, 18.46, and 21.95, respectively).
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pgen-1003299-g002: Estimated survival curves by genetic propensity score.The genetic propensity score is computed as the number of risk alleles across the 22 genome-wide significant SNPs. Curves show estimated survival probability (i.e., the probability of not having developed myopia) by age under the fitted Cox model for the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of scores (15.01, 18.46, and 21.95, respectively).

Mentions: We defined a genetic myopia propensity score as the number of copies of the risk alleles across all 22 SNPs identified via the discovery set. The propensity score showed a strong association with early onset myopia (less than 10 years old) in our replication cohort (, odds ratio 1.075 per risk allele). The top decile of genetic propensity had 1.97 greater odds of developing myopia before the age of 10 than the bottom decile. In a Cox model fit to the discovery set, the propensity score explains 2.9% of the total variance. Note that this estimate may be inflated, as it is calculated on the discovery population. In this model, someone in the 90th percentile of risk (a score of 21.95) is nearly twice as likely to develop myopia by the age of 25 as someone in the 10th percentile of risk (score of 15.01), Figure 2.


Genome-wide analysis points to roles for extracellular matrix remodeling, the visual cycle, and neuronal development in myopia.

Kiefer AK, Tung JY, Do CB, Hinds DA, Mountain JL, Francke U, Eriksson N - PLoS Genet. (2013)

Estimated survival curves by genetic propensity score.The genetic propensity score is computed as the number of risk alleles across the 22 genome-wide significant SNPs. Curves show estimated survival probability (i.e., the probability of not having developed myopia) by age under the fitted Cox model for the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of scores (15.01, 18.46, and 21.95, respectively).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585144&req=5

pgen-1003299-g002: Estimated survival curves by genetic propensity score.The genetic propensity score is computed as the number of risk alleles across the 22 genome-wide significant SNPs. Curves show estimated survival probability (i.e., the probability of not having developed myopia) by age under the fitted Cox model for the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of scores (15.01, 18.46, and 21.95, respectively).
Mentions: We defined a genetic myopia propensity score as the number of copies of the risk alleles across all 22 SNPs identified via the discovery set. The propensity score showed a strong association with early onset myopia (less than 10 years old) in our replication cohort (, odds ratio 1.075 per risk allele). The top decile of genetic propensity had 1.97 greater odds of developing myopia before the age of 10 than the bottom decile. In a Cox model fit to the discovery set, the propensity score explains 2.9% of the total variance. Note that this estimate may be inflated, as it is calculated on the discovery population. In this model, someone in the 90th percentile of risk (a score of 21.95) is nearly twice as likely to develop myopia by the age of 25 as someone in the 10th percentile of risk (score of 15.01), Figure 2.

Bottom Line: Myopia, or nearsightedness, is the most common eye disorder, resulting primarily from excess elongation of the eye.Ten of the 20 novel associations identified replicate in a separate cohort of 8,323 participants who reported if they had developed myopia before age 10.One association is in the gene PRSS56, which has previously been linked to abnormally small eyes; one is in a gene that forms part of the extracellular matrix (LAMA2); two are in or near genes involved in the regeneration of 11-cis-retinal (RGR and RDH5); two are near genes known to be involved in the growth and guidance of retinal ganglion cells (ZIC2, SFRP1); and five are in or near genes involved in neuronal signaling or development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 23andMe, Mountain View, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is the most common eye disorder, resulting primarily from excess elongation of the eye. The etiology of myopia, although known to be complex, is poorly understood. Here we report the largest ever genome-wide association study (45,771 participants) on myopia in Europeans. We performed a survival analysis on age of myopia onset and identified 22 significant associations ([Formula: see text]), two of which are replications of earlier associations with refractive error. Ten of the 20 novel associations identified replicate in a separate cohort of 8,323 participants who reported if they had developed myopia before age 10. These 22 associations in total explain 2.9% of the variance in myopia age of onset and point toward a number of different mechanisms behind the development of myopia. One association is in the gene PRSS56, which has previously been linked to abnormally small eyes; one is in a gene that forms part of the extracellular matrix (LAMA2); two are in or near genes involved in the regeneration of 11-cis-retinal (RGR and RDH5); two are near genes known to be involved in the growth and guidance of retinal ganglion cells (ZIC2, SFRP1); and five are in or near genes involved in neuronal signaling or development. These novel findings point toward multiple genetic factors involved in the development of myopia and suggest that complex interactions between extracellular matrix remodeling, neuronal development, and visual signals from the retina may underlie the development of myopia in humans.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus