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Serological evidence of Rift Valley fever virus circulation in sheep and goats in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.

Fafetine J, Neves L, Thompson PN, Paweska JT, Rutten VP, Coetzer JA - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2013)

Bottom Line: It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in livestock, but also in humans.In contrast to other countries, no clinical disease has been reported in Mozambique during this period.The results of the study indicate that RVFV circulates sub-clinically in domestic small ruminants in Zambézia Province.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Faculty, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique. jfafetine@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic in most parts of Africa and has also been reported to occur in the Arabian Peninsula. It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in livestock, but also in humans. During the last two decades several outbreaks of RVF have been reported in countries in Southern Africa. In contrast to other countries, no clinical disease has been reported in Mozambique during this period. In a serological study conducted in 2007 in five districts of Zambézia Province, Mozambique, of a total of 654 small ruminants sampled (277 sheep and 377 goats), 35.8% of sheep sera and 21.2% of goat sera were positive for RVF virus (RVFV) antibodies in a virus neutralization test (VN) and in an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In 2010, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 313 sheep and 449 goats in two districts of the same province. This study revealed an overall seropositivity rate of 9.2% in sheep and 11.6% in goat and an increased likelihood of being seropositive in older animals (OR = 7.3; p<0.001) using an IgG ELISA. 29 out of 240 animals assessed for RVF specific IgM by ELISA were positive, suggesting recent exposure to RVFV. However, a longitudinal study carried out between September 2010 and April 2011 in a cohort of 125 of these animals (74 sheep and 51 goats) failed to demonstrate seroconversion. The results of the study indicate that RVFV circulates sub-clinically in domestic small ruminants in Zambézia Province.

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Location of the study areas.Figure 1 shows the map of the Zambézia Province, Mozambique indicating the location of the study areas. In 2007, the collection points for the baseline study were in 5 districts namely Maganja da Costa, Mocuba, Mopeia, Morrumbala and Nicoadala (black rectangle). In 2010, the study was carried out in different locations of the Mopeia (red circle) and in Nicoadala districts. Three perennial rivers that drain the Mopeia district namely Zambeze, Cuacua and Chire Rivers are highlighted in blue.
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pntd-0002065-g001: Location of the study areas.Figure 1 shows the map of the Zambézia Province, Mozambique indicating the location of the study areas. In 2007, the collection points for the baseline study were in 5 districts namely Maganja da Costa, Mocuba, Mopeia, Morrumbala and Nicoadala (black rectangle). In 2010, the study was carried out in different locations of the Mopeia (red circle) and in Nicoadala districts. Three perennial rivers that drain the Mopeia district namely Zambeze, Cuacua and Chire Rivers are highlighted in blue.

Mentions: Zambézia Province is located in the central coastal region of Mozambique (17°0′S; 37°0′E), south of Nampula and north of Sofala Province. It has a total area of 103,127 km2, much of it drained by the Zambezi River. The coast consists mainly of mangrove swamps and inland forest. The monthly average minimum temperature in the capital of the province between 1971 and 2000 ranged from 15.3°C to 23.4°C and the average maximum temperature from 26.3°C to 32.4°C. In the same period the average monthly rainfall was 189.4 mm. January, February and March are the months with higher precipitation and July, August, September and October are considered to be the drier months [19]. The province has a total of 32,629 cattle, 1,308 water buffaloes, 194,052 goats and 47,603 sheep, of which the majority are kept in rural areas by subsistence farmers with less than 20 animals each [20]. Five out of 16 administrative districts of the Province, namely, Maganja da Costa, Mocuba, Mopeia, Morrumbala and Nicoadala were chosen for the baseline study in 2007. In September 2010 samples were collected only in Mopeia and Nicoadala districts (Fig. 1).


Serological evidence of Rift Valley fever virus circulation in sheep and goats in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.

Fafetine J, Neves L, Thompson PN, Paweska JT, Rutten VP, Coetzer JA - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2013)

Location of the study areas.Figure 1 shows the map of the Zambézia Province, Mozambique indicating the location of the study areas. In 2007, the collection points for the baseline study were in 5 districts namely Maganja da Costa, Mocuba, Mopeia, Morrumbala and Nicoadala (black rectangle). In 2010, the study was carried out in different locations of the Mopeia (red circle) and in Nicoadala districts. Three perennial rivers that drain the Mopeia district namely Zambeze, Cuacua and Chire Rivers are highlighted in blue.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585041&req=5

pntd-0002065-g001: Location of the study areas.Figure 1 shows the map of the Zambézia Province, Mozambique indicating the location of the study areas. In 2007, the collection points for the baseline study were in 5 districts namely Maganja da Costa, Mocuba, Mopeia, Morrumbala and Nicoadala (black rectangle). In 2010, the study was carried out in different locations of the Mopeia (red circle) and in Nicoadala districts. Three perennial rivers that drain the Mopeia district namely Zambeze, Cuacua and Chire Rivers are highlighted in blue.
Mentions: Zambézia Province is located in the central coastal region of Mozambique (17°0′S; 37°0′E), south of Nampula and north of Sofala Province. It has a total area of 103,127 km2, much of it drained by the Zambezi River. The coast consists mainly of mangrove swamps and inland forest. The monthly average minimum temperature in the capital of the province between 1971 and 2000 ranged from 15.3°C to 23.4°C and the average maximum temperature from 26.3°C to 32.4°C. In the same period the average monthly rainfall was 189.4 mm. January, February and March are the months with higher precipitation and July, August, September and October are considered to be the drier months [19]. The province has a total of 32,629 cattle, 1,308 water buffaloes, 194,052 goats and 47,603 sheep, of which the majority are kept in rural areas by subsistence farmers with less than 20 animals each [20]. Five out of 16 administrative districts of the Province, namely, Maganja da Costa, Mocuba, Mopeia, Morrumbala and Nicoadala were chosen for the baseline study in 2007. In September 2010 samples were collected only in Mopeia and Nicoadala districts (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in livestock, but also in humans.In contrast to other countries, no clinical disease has been reported in Mozambique during this period.The results of the study indicate that RVFV circulates sub-clinically in domestic small ruminants in Zambézia Province.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Faculty, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique. jfafetine@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic in most parts of Africa and has also been reported to occur in the Arabian Peninsula. It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in livestock, but also in humans. During the last two decades several outbreaks of RVF have been reported in countries in Southern Africa. In contrast to other countries, no clinical disease has been reported in Mozambique during this period. In a serological study conducted in 2007 in five districts of Zambézia Province, Mozambique, of a total of 654 small ruminants sampled (277 sheep and 377 goats), 35.8% of sheep sera and 21.2% of goat sera were positive for RVF virus (RVFV) antibodies in a virus neutralization test (VN) and in an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In 2010, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 313 sheep and 449 goats in two districts of the same province. This study revealed an overall seropositivity rate of 9.2% in sheep and 11.6% in goat and an increased likelihood of being seropositive in older animals (OR = 7.3; p<0.001) using an IgG ELISA. 29 out of 240 animals assessed for RVF specific IgM by ELISA were positive, suggesting recent exposure to RVFV. However, a longitudinal study carried out between September 2010 and April 2011 in a cohort of 125 of these animals (74 sheep and 51 goats) failed to demonstrate seroconversion. The results of the study indicate that RVFV circulates sub-clinically in domestic small ruminants in Zambézia Province.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus