Limits...
Genome-wide diversity in the levant reveals recent structuring by culture.

Haber M, Gauguier D, Youhanna S, Patterson N, Moorjani P, Botigué LR, Platt DE, Matisoo-Smith E, Soria-Hernanz DF, Wells RS, Bertranpetit J, Tyler-Smith C, Comas D, Zalloua PA - PLoS Genet. (2013)

Bottom Line: Our results show recent genetic stratifications in the Levant are driven by the religious affiliations of the populations within the region.The same cultural changes seem to have resulted in genetic isolation of other groups by limiting admixture with culturally different neighboring populations.Finally, we identify a putative Levantine ancestral component that diverged from other Middle Easterners ∼23,700-15,500 years ago during the last glacial period, and diverged from Europeans ∼15,900-9,100 years ago between the last glacial warming and the start of the Neolithic.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (CSIC-UPF), Departament de Ciències de la Salut i de la Vida, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The Levant is a region in the Near East with an impressive record of continuous human existence and major cultural developments since the Paleolithic period. Genetic and archeological studies present solid evidence placing the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula as the first stepping-stone outside Africa. There is, however, little understanding of demographic changes in the Middle East, particularly the Levant, after the first Out-of-Africa expansion and how the Levantine peoples relate genetically to each other and to their neighbors. In this study we analyze more than 500,000 genome-wide SNPs in 1,341 new samples from the Levant and compare them to samples from 48 populations worldwide. Our results show recent genetic stratifications in the Levant are driven by the religious affiliations of the populations within the region. Cultural changes within the last two millennia appear to have facilitated/maintained admixture between culturally similar populations from the Levant, Arabian Peninsula, and Africa. The same cultural changes seem to have resulted in genetic isolation of other groups by limiting admixture with culturally different neighboring populations. Consequently, Levant populations today fall into two main groups: one sharing more genetic characteristics with modern-day Europeans and Central Asians, and the other with closer genetic affinities to other Middle Easterners and Africans. Finally, we identify a putative Levantine ancestral component that diverged from other Middle Easterners ∼23,700-15,500 years ago during the last glacial period, and diverged from Europeans ∼15,900-9,100 years ago between the last glacial warming and the start of the Neolithic.

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Multidimensional scaling of >240K SNPs showing the top two dimensions.Main plot shows global diversity using 50 populations. Inset shows Levantine populations in their regional and religion context. The Levant region includes Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Palestine, and often Cyprus and historical Armenia. The Levantine core cluster is shaded in pink.
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pgen-1003316-g002: Multidimensional scaling of >240K SNPs showing the top two dimensions.Main plot shows global diversity using 50 populations. Inset shows Levantine populations in their regional and religion context. The Levant region includes Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Palestine, and often Cyprus and historical Armenia. The Levantine core cluster is shaded in pink.

Mentions: In order to assess the population structure of Levantine populations more generally, an MDS (Figure 2) and a normalized principle component analysis (PCA) (Figure S2) plots with 48 additional Old World populations (Table S1) were built. Only 25 randomly selected samples from each Lebanese group were used in order to avoid population size biases (Figure S3). The plots reveal a Levantine structure not reported previously: Lebanese Christians and all Druze cluster together, and Lebanese Muslims are extended towards Syrians, Palestinians, and Jordanians, which are close to Saudis and Bedouins. Ashkenazi Jews are drawn towards the Caucasus and Eastern Europe, reflecting historical admixture events with Europeans, while Sephardi Jews cluster tightly with the Levantine groups. These results are consistent with previous studies reporting higher European genome-wide admixture in Ashkenazi Jews compared with other Jews [11] and higher Y-chromosomal gene flow to Lebanese Muslims from the Arabian Peninsula compared with other Lebanese [5].


Genome-wide diversity in the levant reveals recent structuring by culture.

Haber M, Gauguier D, Youhanna S, Patterson N, Moorjani P, Botigué LR, Platt DE, Matisoo-Smith E, Soria-Hernanz DF, Wells RS, Bertranpetit J, Tyler-Smith C, Comas D, Zalloua PA - PLoS Genet. (2013)

Multidimensional scaling of >240K SNPs showing the top two dimensions.Main plot shows global diversity using 50 populations. Inset shows Levantine populations in their regional and religion context. The Levant region includes Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Palestine, and often Cyprus and historical Armenia. The Levantine core cluster is shaded in pink.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585000&req=5

pgen-1003316-g002: Multidimensional scaling of >240K SNPs showing the top two dimensions.Main plot shows global diversity using 50 populations. Inset shows Levantine populations in their regional and religion context. The Levant region includes Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Palestine, and often Cyprus and historical Armenia. The Levantine core cluster is shaded in pink.
Mentions: In order to assess the population structure of Levantine populations more generally, an MDS (Figure 2) and a normalized principle component analysis (PCA) (Figure S2) plots with 48 additional Old World populations (Table S1) were built. Only 25 randomly selected samples from each Lebanese group were used in order to avoid population size biases (Figure S3). The plots reveal a Levantine structure not reported previously: Lebanese Christians and all Druze cluster together, and Lebanese Muslims are extended towards Syrians, Palestinians, and Jordanians, which are close to Saudis and Bedouins. Ashkenazi Jews are drawn towards the Caucasus and Eastern Europe, reflecting historical admixture events with Europeans, while Sephardi Jews cluster tightly with the Levantine groups. These results are consistent with previous studies reporting higher European genome-wide admixture in Ashkenazi Jews compared with other Jews [11] and higher Y-chromosomal gene flow to Lebanese Muslims from the Arabian Peninsula compared with other Lebanese [5].

Bottom Line: Our results show recent genetic stratifications in the Levant are driven by the religious affiliations of the populations within the region.The same cultural changes seem to have resulted in genetic isolation of other groups by limiting admixture with culturally different neighboring populations.Finally, we identify a putative Levantine ancestral component that diverged from other Middle Easterners ∼23,700-15,500 years ago during the last glacial period, and diverged from Europeans ∼15,900-9,100 years ago between the last glacial warming and the start of the Neolithic.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (CSIC-UPF), Departament de Ciències de la Salut i de la Vida, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The Levant is a region in the Near East with an impressive record of continuous human existence and major cultural developments since the Paleolithic period. Genetic and archeological studies present solid evidence placing the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula as the first stepping-stone outside Africa. There is, however, little understanding of demographic changes in the Middle East, particularly the Levant, after the first Out-of-Africa expansion and how the Levantine peoples relate genetically to each other and to their neighbors. In this study we analyze more than 500,000 genome-wide SNPs in 1,341 new samples from the Levant and compare them to samples from 48 populations worldwide. Our results show recent genetic stratifications in the Levant are driven by the religious affiliations of the populations within the region. Cultural changes within the last two millennia appear to have facilitated/maintained admixture between culturally similar populations from the Levant, Arabian Peninsula, and Africa. The same cultural changes seem to have resulted in genetic isolation of other groups by limiting admixture with culturally different neighboring populations. Consequently, Levant populations today fall into two main groups: one sharing more genetic characteristics with modern-day Europeans and Central Asians, and the other with closer genetic affinities to other Middle Easterners and Africans. Finally, we identify a putative Levantine ancestral component that diverged from other Middle Easterners ∼23,700-15,500 years ago during the last glacial period, and diverged from Europeans ∼15,900-9,100 years ago between the last glacial warming and the start of the Neolithic.

Show MeSH