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An acupuncture research protocol developed from historical writings by mathematical reflections: a rational individualized acupoint selection method for immediate pain relief.

Schroeder S, Meyer-Hamme G, Zhang J, Epplée S, Friedemann T, Hu W - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Bottom Line: We identified 5 of these patterns for every meridian, so we end up with 60 patterns for all the 12 meridians but we find multiple overlapping.Finally, 15 distinct patterns remain.By combining this theoretical concept with the Image and Mirror Concept, we developed an acupuncture research protocol.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: HanseMerkur Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, House O55, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
While balancing yin and yang is one basic principle of Chinese medicine, balancing methods for combination of meridians and acupoints had been described throughout the history of Chinese medicine. We have identified six historical systems for combinations of acupuncture points in historical writings. All of them represent symmetrical combinations which are defined by the steps in the Chinese Clock. Taking the historical systems as a basis, we calculated the possible combinations that fit into these systems they revealed, leading to a total of 19 systems offering new balancing combinations. Merging the data of these 19 systems, there are 7 combinatorial options for every meridian. On the basis of this data, we calculated 4-meridian combinations with an ideal balance pattern, which is given when all meridians balance each other. We identified 5 of these patterns for every meridian, so we end up with 60 patterns for all the 12 meridians but we find multiple overlapping. Finally, 15 distinct patterns remain. By combining this theoretical concept with the Image and Mirror Concept, we developed an acupuncture research protocol. This protocol potentially solves some problems of acupuncture trials because it represents a rational reproducible procedure independent of examiner experience, but the resulting treatment is individualized.

No MeSH data available.


Graphical plotting of the historical systems. (a) Interior/exterior; (b) neighbouring channels; (c) 6-stage I; (d) 6-stage II; (e) 6-stage III; (f) opposite clock and one new system; (g) 6-stage IV. Blue: yin meridians, red: yang meridians.
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fig1: Graphical plotting of the historical systems. (a) Interior/exterior; (b) neighbouring channels; (c) 6-stage I; (d) 6-stage II; (e) 6-stage III; (f) opposite clock and one new system; (g) 6-stage IV. Blue: yin meridians, red: yang meridians.

Mentions: The most common system is the interior-exterior system, a single-step system [17, 28–30]. It originates from Ling Shu (Ch. 2, Vol. 1) [23] and was described in detail in The systematic classic of acupuncture and moxibustion (Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing, Book 9) [17]. Figure 1(a) shows the plotting of the interior-exterior system on the CC. The neighbouring channels system is the second option of combining channels in a single-step system. It leads to arm-leg combinations of two yin or two yang channels [30–33]. Figure 1(b) shows the plotting of the neighbouring channels system on the CC. Three systems follow the theory of the 6 stages, originating from the Suwen (Chapter 6, (77 + 79)) and Lingshu (Chapter 5 (948 + 949) [10, 23] and have been described in detail in the Shanghanlun [10]. Since the description in The Systematic Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion [17] meridians are named according to the stages and the extremity where the main part of this meridian is running (Hand Tai Yang (SI), Foot Tai Yang (BL), Hand Yang Ming (LI), Foot Yang Ming (ST), Hand Shao Yang (TE), Foot Shao Yang (GB), Hand Tai Yin (LU), Foot Tai Yin (SP), Hand Jue Yin (PC), Foot Jue Yin (LR), Hand Shao Yin (HT), and Foot Shao Yin (KI)). Combining the meridians of one stage is very popular and is called “anatomical system” in some schools [34]. This system represents a 1-step–3-step alternating system. We call it the 6-stage system I. Figure 1(c) shows the plotting of the 6-stage system I on the CC. The next system we call 6-stage system II. It combines stages Tai Yang and Shao Yin, stages Yang Ming and Tai Yin as well as stages Shao Yang and Jue Yin. It is widely used in modern schools [18, 29, 31, 32]. Figure 1(d) shows the plotting of the 6-stage system II on the CC.


An acupuncture research protocol developed from historical writings by mathematical reflections: a rational individualized acupoint selection method for immediate pain relief.

Schroeder S, Meyer-Hamme G, Zhang J, Epplée S, Friedemann T, Hu W - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Graphical plotting of the historical systems. (a) Interior/exterior; (b) neighbouring channels; (c) 6-stage I; (d) 6-stage II; (e) 6-stage III; (f) opposite clock and one new system; (g) 6-stage IV. Blue: yin meridians, red: yang meridians.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569893&req=5

fig1: Graphical plotting of the historical systems. (a) Interior/exterior; (b) neighbouring channels; (c) 6-stage I; (d) 6-stage II; (e) 6-stage III; (f) opposite clock and one new system; (g) 6-stage IV. Blue: yin meridians, red: yang meridians.
Mentions: The most common system is the interior-exterior system, a single-step system [17, 28–30]. It originates from Ling Shu (Ch. 2, Vol. 1) [23] and was described in detail in The systematic classic of acupuncture and moxibustion (Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing, Book 9) [17]. Figure 1(a) shows the plotting of the interior-exterior system on the CC. The neighbouring channels system is the second option of combining channels in a single-step system. It leads to arm-leg combinations of two yin or two yang channels [30–33]. Figure 1(b) shows the plotting of the neighbouring channels system on the CC. Three systems follow the theory of the 6 stages, originating from the Suwen (Chapter 6, (77 + 79)) and Lingshu (Chapter 5 (948 + 949) [10, 23] and have been described in detail in the Shanghanlun [10]. Since the description in The Systematic Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion [17] meridians are named according to the stages and the extremity where the main part of this meridian is running (Hand Tai Yang (SI), Foot Tai Yang (BL), Hand Yang Ming (LI), Foot Yang Ming (ST), Hand Shao Yang (TE), Foot Shao Yang (GB), Hand Tai Yin (LU), Foot Tai Yin (SP), Hand Jue Yin (PC), Foot Jue Yin (LR), Hand Shao Yin (HT), and Foot Shao Yin (KI)). Combining the meridians of one stage is very popular and is called “anatomical system” in some schools [34]. This system represents a 1-step–3-step alternating system. We call it the 6-stage system I. Figure 1(c) shows the plotting of the 6-stage system I on the CC. The next system we call 6-stage system II. It combines stages Tai Yang and Shao Yin, stages Yang Ming and Tai Yin as well as stages Shao Yang and Jue Yin. It is widely used in modern schools [18, 29, 31, 32]. Figure 1(d) shows the plotting of the 6-stage system II on the CC.

Bottom Line: We identified 5 of these patterns for every meridian, so we end up with 60 patterns for all the 12 meridians but we find multiple overlapping.Finally, 15 distinct patterns remain.By combining this theoretical concept with the Image and Mirror Concept, we developed an acupuncture research protocol.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: HanseMerkur Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, House O55, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
While balancing yin and yang is one basic principle of Chinese medicine, balancing methods for combination of meridians and acupoints had been described throughout the history of Chinese medicine. We have identified six historical systems for combinations of acupuncture points in historical writings. All of them represent symmetrical combinations which are defined by the steps in the Chinese Clock. Taking the historical systems as a basis, we calculated the possible combinations that fit into these systems they revealed, leading to a total of 19 systems offering new balancing combinations. Merging the data of these 19 systems, there are 7 combinatorial options for every meridian. On the basis of this data, we calculated 4-meridian combinations with an ideal balance pattern, which is given when all meridians balance each other. We identified 5 of these patterns for every meridian, so we end up with 60 patterns for all the 12 meridians but we find multiple overlapping. Finally, 15 distinct patterns remain. By combining this theoretical concept with the Image and Mirror Concept, we developed an acupuncture research protocol. This protocol potentially solves some problems of acupuncture trials because it represents a rational reproducible procedure independent of examiner experience, but the resulting treatment is individualized.

No MeSH data available.