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Altered knee joint mechanics in simple compression associated with early cartilage degeneration.

Dabiri Y, Li LP - Comput Math Methods Med (2013)

Bottom Line: As compared with a normal knee of the same compression, reduced fluid pressurization was observed in the degenerated knee.The results also indicated redistribution of stresses within the tissue and relocation of the loading between the tissue matrix and fluid pressure.These results may only be qualitatively interesting due to the small compression considered.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4.

ABSTRACT
The progression of osteoarthritis can be accompanied by depth-dependent changes in the properties of articular cartilage. The objective of the present study was to determine the subsequent alteration in the fluid pressurization in the human knee using a three-dimensional computer model. Only a small compression in the femur-tibia direction was applied to avoid numerical difficulties. The material model for articular cartilages and menisci included fluid, fibrillar and nonfibrillar matrices as distinct constituents. The knee model consisted of distal femur, femoral cartilage, menisci, tibial cartilage, and proximal tibia. Cartilage degeneration was modeled in the high load-bearing region of the medial condyle of the femur with reduced fibrillar and nonfibrillar elastic properties and increased hydraulic permeability. Three case studies were implemented to simulate (1) the onset of cartilage degeneration from the superficial zone, (2) the progression of cartilage degeneration to the middle zone, and (3) the progression of cartilage degeneration to the deep zone. As compared with a normal knee of the same compression, reduced fluid pressurization was observed in the degenerated knee. Furthermore, faster reduction in fluid pressure was observed with the onset of cartilage degeneration in the superficial zone and progression to the middle zone, as compared to progression to the deep zone. On the other hand, cartilage degeneration in any zone would reduce the fluid pressure in all three zones. The shear strains at the cartilage-bone interface were increased when cartilage degeneration was eventually advanced to the deep zone. The present study revealed, at the joint level, altered fluid pressurization and strains with the depth-wise cartilage degeneration. The results also indicated redistribution of stresses within the tissue and relocation of the loading between the tissue matrix and fluid pressure. These results may only be qualitatively interesting due to the small compression considered.

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Finite element model of the tibiofemoral joint, showing the distal femur, proximal tibia, menisci, and femoral and tibial cartilages. The tibial cartilage on the medial side is essentially covered by the medial meniscus (right knee, medial side shown on the left of the figure). The femoral cartilage is further shown with 8 layers of elements.
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fig1: Finite element model of the tibiofemoral joint, showing the distal femur, proximal tibia, menisci, and femoral and tibial cartilages. The tibial cartilage on the medial side is essentially covered by the medial meniscus (right knee, medial side shown on the left of the figure). The femoral cartilage is further shown with 8 layers of elements.

Mentions: The geometry of the model was reconstructed from MRI images of the right knee of a 27-year-old male subject, who had no symptoms of OA (SPGR sequence, 625 × 625 μm resolution, sagittal scan). The model included the distal femur, femoral cartilage, meniscus, tibial cartilage, and proximal tibia (Figure 1). The maximum thickness of the femoral cartilage was approximately 2.8 mm, and the maximum thickness of the menisci was 8.4 mm [30].


Altered knee joint mechanics in simple compression associated with early cartilage degeneration.

Dabiri Y, Li LP - Comput Math Methods Med (2013)

Finite element model of the tibiofemoral joint, showing the distal femur, proximal tibia, menisci, and femoral and tibial cartilages. The tibial cartilage on the medial side is essentially covered by the medial meniscus (right knee, medial side shown on the left of the figure). The femoral cartilage is further shown with 8 layers of elements.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569885&req=5

fig1: Finite element model of the tibiofemoral joint, showing the distal femur, proximal tibia, menisci, and femoral and tibial cartilages. The tibial cartilage on the medial side is essentially covered by the medial meniscus (right knee, medial side shown on the left of the figure). The femoral cartilage is further shown with 8 layers of elements.
Mentions: The geometry of the model was reconstructed from MRI images of the right knee of a 27-year-old male subject, who had no symptoms of OA (SPGR sequence, 625 × 625 μm resolution, sagittal scan). The model included the distal femur, femoral cartilage, meniscus, tibial cartilage, and proximal tibia (Figure 1). The maximum thickness of the femoral cartilage was approximately 2.8 mm, and the maximum thickness of the menisci was 8.4 mm [30].

Bottom Line: As compared with a normal knee of the same compression, reduced fluid pressurization was observed in the degenerated knee.The results also indicated redistribution of stresses within the tissue and relocation of the loading between the tissue matrix and fluid pressure.These results may only be qualitatively interesting due to the small compression considered.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4.

ABSTRACT
The progression of osteoarthritis can be accompanied by depth-dependent changes in the properties of articular cartilage. The objective of the present study was to determine the subsequent alteration in the fluid pressurization in the human knee using a three-dimensional computer model. Only a small compression in the femur-tibia direction was applied to avoid numerical difficulties. The material model for articular cartilages and menisci included fluid, fibrillar and nonfibrillar matrices as distinct constituents. The knee model consisted of distal femur, femoral cartilage, menisci, tibial cartilage, and proximal tibia. Cartilage degeneration was modeled in the high load-bearing region of the medial condyle of the femur with reduced fibrillar and nonfibrillar elastic properties and increased hydraulic permeability. Three case studies were implemented to simulate (1) the onset of cartilage degeneration from the superficial zone, (2) the progression of cartilage degeneration to the middle zone, and (3) the progression of cartilage degeneration to the deep zone. As compared with a normal knee of the same compression, reduced fluid pressurization was observed in the degenerated knee. Furthermore, faster reduction in fluid pressure was observed with the onset of cartilage degeneration in the superficial zone and progression to the middle zone, as compared to progression to the deep zone. On the other hand, cartilage degeneration in any zone would reduce the fluid pressure in all three zones. The shear strains at the cartilage-bone interface were increased when cartilage degeneration was eventually advanced to the deep zone. The present study revealed, at the joint level, altered fluid pressurization and strains with the depth-wise cartilage degeneration. The results also indicated redistribution of stresses within the tissue and relocation of the loading between the tissue matrix and fluid pressure. These results may only be qualitatively interesting due to the small compression considered.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus