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Processing of visual signals related to self-motion in the cerebellum of pigeons.

Wylie DR - Front Behav Neurosci (2013)

Bottom Line: Optic flow is the visual motion that occurs across the entire retina as a result of self-motion and is processed by subcortical visual pathways that project to the cerebellum.As the tectofugal system is involved in the analysis of local motion, there is integration of optic flow and local motion information in VI-VIII.This part of the cerebellum may be important for moving through a cluttered environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, University of Alberta Edmonton, AB, Canada.

ABSTRACT
In this paper I describe the key features of optic flow processing in pigeons. Optic flow is the visual motion that occurs across the entire retina as a result of self-motion and is processed by subcortical visual pathways that project to the cerebellum. These pathways originate in two retinal-recipient nuclei, the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, which project to the vestibulocerebellum (VbC) (folia IXcd and X), directly as mossy fibers, and indirectly as climbing fibers from the inferior olive. Optic flow information is integrated with vestibular input in the VbC. There is a clear separation of function in the VbC: Purkinje cells in the flocculus process optic flow resulting from self-rotation, whereas Purkinje cells in the uvula/nodulus process optic flow resulting from self-translation. Furthermore, Purkinje cells with particular optic flow preferences are organized topographically into parasagittal "zones." These zones are correlated with expression of the isoenzyme aldolase C, also known as zebrin II (ZII). ZII expression is heterogeneous such that there are parasagittal stripes of Purkinje cells that have high expression (ZII+) alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with low expression (ZII-). A functional zone spans a ZII± stripe pair. That is, each zone that contains Purkinje cells responsive to a particular pattern of optic flow is subdivided into a strip containing ZII+ Purkinje cells and a strip containing ZII- Purkinje cells. Additionally, there is optic flow input to folia VI-VIII of the cerebellum from lentiformis mesencephali. These folia also receive visual input from the tectofugal system via pontine nuclei. As the tectofugal system is involved in the analysis of local motion, there is integration of optic flow and local motion information in VI-VIII. This part of the cerebellum may be important for moving through a cluttered environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Shows a schematic of the zonal organization of the optic flow responsive cells in the VbC as concluded from a series of electrophysiological and anatomical studies (Wylie and Frost, 1993, 1999b; Wylie et al., 1993, 2003a,b; Winship and Wylie, 2003; Pakan et al., 2005). The location of the Ascent units was unknown. (B) Shows a coronal section through the posterior cerebellum (folia VII–IXcd) showing heterogeneous zebrin II (ZII) expression. (C) and (D) Highlight the ZII expression in the vestibulocerebellum. (D) Is a wholemount of the cerebellum whereas (C) is a coronal section through folia IXcd and X. The ZII stripes are numbered P1± to P7± from the midline (indicated by the dashed line). P6−, P7+, and P7− are found more rostrally, as seen in (D). P1− is divided into medial and lateral portions by a small satellite immunopositive band one to two Purkinje cells wide in the middle of P1− denoted “?”. P2+ is divided into medial and lateral portions by a small immunonegative “notch” in the middle of P2+ (see inverted triangle). Folium X does not have ZII stripes, as all Purkinje cells are ZII+ve. (B) and (D) Are adapted from Pakan et al. (2007). (C) Is adapted from Graham and Wylie (2012). Scale bars: (A,B) = 500 μm; (C) = 300 μm; (D) = 2.5 mm.
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Figure 8: (A) Shows a schematic of the zonal organization of the optic flow responsive cells in the VbC as concluded from a series of electrophysiological and anatomical studies (Wylie and Frost, 1993, 1999b; Wylie et al., 1993, 2003a,b; Winship and Wylie, 2003; Pakan et al., 2005). The location of the Ascent units was unknown. (B) Shows a coronal section through the posterior cerebellum (folia VII–IXcd) showing heterogeneous zebrin II (ZII) expression. (C) and (D) Highlight the ZII expression in the vestibulocerebellum. (D) Is a wholemount of the cerebellum whereas (C) is a coronal section through folia IXcd and X. The ZII stripes are numbered P1± to P7± from the midline (indicated by the dashed line). P6−, P7+, and P7− are found more rostrally, as seen in (D). P1− is divided into medial and lateral portions by a small satellite immunopositive band one to two Purkinje cells wide in the middle of P1− denoted “?”. P2+ is divided into medial and lateral portions by a small immunonegative “notch” in the middle of P2+ (see inverted triangle). Folium X does not have ZII stripes, as all Purkinje cells are ZII+ve. (B) and (D) Are adapted from Pakan et al. (2007). (C) Is adapted from Graham and Wylie (2012). Scale bars: (A,B) = 500 μm; (C) = 300 μm; (D) = 2.5 mm.

Mentions: The functional units of the cerebellum are series of “zones” that lie in the sagittal plane, perpendicular to the axes of the folia. This organization is revealed in several aspects: afferents to the cerebellar cortex terminate in parasagittal bands (Voogd and Bigare, 1980; Wu et al., 1999; Ruigrok, 2003), and Purkinje cells within a sagittal band show similar response properties (Andersson and Oscarsson, 1978). As outlined by Simpson (2011), the flocculus is no exception in this regard, and this has been extensively studied in rabbits. Based on converging evidence examining the inferior olivary inputs to the flocculus, the projections of flocculus to the vestibular nuclei, eye movements elicited by stimulation of the flocculus, and the responses of Purkinje cells to rotational optic flow, it has been determined that there are four optic flow zones in the rabbit flocculus: two VA zones interdigitated with two HA zones (Kusunoki et al., 1990; DeZeeuw et al., 1994; Van der Steen et al., 1994; Tan et al., 1995). A strikingly similar organization has been found in pigeons: there are 2 VA zones interdigitated with 2 HA zones (Figure 8A). In other species it has also been shown that there is an interdigitation of HA and VA zones. In rats, there are 2 HA zones and 2 or 3 VA zones (Sugihara et al., 2004; Schonewille et al., 2006) whereas in macaques there appear to be two VA zone but only one HA zone (Voogd et al., 2012). Thus, the organization of optic rotational optic flow zones is highly conserved across birds and mammals (Voogd and Wylie, 2004).


Processing of visual signals related to self-motion in the cerebellum of pigeons.

Wylie DR - Front Behav Neurosci (2013)

(A) Shows a schematic of the zonal organization of the optic flow responsive cells in the VbC as concluded from a series of electrophysiological and anatomical studies (Wylie and Frost, 1993, 1999b; Wylie et al., 1993, 2003a,b; Winship and Wylie, 2003; Pakan et al., 2005). The location of the Ascent units was unknown. (B) Shows a coronal section through the posterior cerebellum (folia VII–IXcd) showing heterogeneous zebrin II (ZII) expression. (C) and (D) Highlight the ZII expression in the vestibulocerebellum. (D) Is a wholemount of the cerebellum whereas (C) is a coronal section through folia IXcd and X. The ZII stripes are numbered P1± to P7± from the midline (indicated by the dashed line). P6−, P7+, and P7− are found more rostrally, as seen in (D). P1− is divided into medial and lateral portions by a small satellite immunopositive band one to two Purkinje cells wide in the middle of P1− denoted “?”. P2+ is divided into medial and lateral portions by a small immunonegative “notch” in the middle of P2+ (see inverted triangle). Folium X does not have ZII stripes, as all Purkinje cells are ZII+ve. (B) and (D) Are adapted from Pakan et al. (2007). (C) Is adapted from Graham and Wylie (2012). Scale bars: (A,B) = 500 μm; (C) = 300 μm; (D) = 2.5 mm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 8: (A) Shows a schematic of the zonal organization of the optic flow responsive cells in the VbC as concluded from a series of electrophysiological and anatomical studies (Wylie and Frost, 1993, 1999b; Wylie et al., 1993, 2003a,b; Winship and Wylie, 2003; Pakan et al., 2005). The location of the Ascent units was unknown. (B) Shows a coronal section through the posterior cerebellum (folia VII–IXcd) showing heterogeneous zebrin II (ZII) expression. (C) and (D) Highlight the ZII expression in the vestibulocerebellum. (D) Is a wholemount of the cerebellum whereas (C) is a coronal section through folia IXcd and X. The ZII stripes are numbered P1± to P7± from the midline (indicated by the dashed line). P6−, P7+, and P7− are found more rostrally, as seen in (D). P1− is divided into medial and lateral portions by a small satellite immunopositive band one to two Purkinje cells wide in the middle of P1− denoted “?”. P2+ is divided into medial and lateral portions by a small immunonegative “notch” in the middle of P2+ (see inverted triangle). Folium X does not have ZII stripes, as all Purkinje cells are ZII+ve. (B) and (D) Are adapted from Pakan et al. (2007). (C) Is adapted from Graham and Wylie (2012). Scale bars: (A,B) = 500 μm; (C) = 300 μm; (D) = 2.5 mm.
Mentions: The functional units of the cerebellum are series of “zones” that lie in the sagittal plane, perpendicular to the axes of the folia. This organization is revealed in several aspects: afferents to the cerebellar cortex terminate in parasagittal bands (Voogd and Bigare, 1980; Wu et al., 1999; Ruigrok, 2003), and Purkinje cells within a sagittal band show similar response properties (Andersson and Oscarsson, 1978). As outlined by Simpson (2011), the flocculus is no exception in this regard, and this has been extensively studied in rabbits. Based on converging evidence examining the inferior olivary inputs to the flocculus, the projections of flocculus to the vestibular nuclei, eye movements elicited by stimulation of the flocculus, and the responses of Purkinje cells to rotational optic flow, it has been determined that there are four optic flow zones in the rabbit flocculus: two VA zones interdigitated with two HA zones (Kusunoki et al., 1990; DeZeeuw et al., 1994; Van der Steen et al., 1994; Tan et al., 1995). A strikingly similar organization has been found in pigeons: there are 2 VA zones interdigitated with 2 HA zones (Figure 8A). In other species it has also been shown that there is an interdigitation of HA and VA zones. In rats, there are 2 HA zones and 2 or 3 VA zones (Sugihara et al., 2004; Schonewille et al., 2006) whereas in macaques there appear to be two VA zone but only one HA zone (Voogd et al., 2012). Thus, the organization of optic rotational optic flow zones is highly conserved across birds and mammals (Voogd and Wylie, 2004).

Bottom Line: Optic flow is the visual motion that occurs across the entire retina as a result of self-motion and is processed by subcortical visual pathways that project to the cerebellum.As the tectofugal system is involved in the analysis of local motion, there is integration of optic flow and local motion information in VI-VIII.This part of the cerebellum may be important for moving through a cluttered environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, University of Alberta Edmonton, AB, Canada.

ABSTRACT
In this paper I describe the key features of optic flow processing in pigeons. Optic flow is the visual motion that occurs across the entire retina as a result of self-motion and is processed by subcortical visual pathways that project to the cerebellum. These pathways originate in two retinal-recipient nuclei, the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, which project to the vestibulocerebellum (VbC) (folia IXcd and X), directly as mossy fibers, and indirectly as climbing fibers from the inferior olive. Optic flow information is integrated with vestibular input in the VbC. There is a clear separation of function in the VbC: Purkinje cells in the flocculus process optic flow resulting from self-rotation, whereas Purkinje cells in the uvula/nodulus process optic flow resulting from self-translation. Furthermore, Purkinje cells with particular optic flow preferences are organized topographically into parasagittal "zones." These zones are correlated with expression of the isoenzyme aldolase C, also known as zebrin II (ZII). ZII expression is heterogeneous such that there are parasagittal stripes of Purkinje cells that have high expression (ZII+) alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with low expression (ZII-). A functional zone spans a ZII± stripe pair. That is, each zone that contains Purkinje cells responsive to a particular pattern of optic flow is subdivided into a strip containing ZII+ Purkinje cells and a strip containing ZII- Purkinje cells. Additionally, there is optic flow input to folia VI-VIII of the cerebellum from lentiformis mesencephali. These folia also receive visual input from the tectofugal system via pontine nuclei. As the tectofugal system is involved in the analysis of local motion, there is integration of optic flow and local motion information in VI-VIII. This part of the cerebellum may be important for moving through a cluttered environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus