Limits...
Processing of visual signals related to self-motion in the cerebellum of pigeons.

Wylie DR - Front Behav Neurosci (2013)

Bottom Line: Optic flow is the visual motion that occurs across the entire retina as a result of self-motion and is processed by subcortical visual pathways that project to the cerebellum.As the tectofugal system is involved in the analysis of local motion, there is integration of optic flow and local motion information in VI-VIII.This part of the cerebellum may be important for moving through a cluttered environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, University of Alberta Edmonton, AB, Canada.

ABSTRACT
In this paper I describe the key features of optic flow processing in pigeons. Optic flow is the visual motion that occurs across the entire retina as a result of self-motion and is processed by subcortical visual pathways that project to the cerebellum. These pathways originate in two retinal-recipient nuclei, the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, which project to the vestibulocerebellum (VbC) (folia IXcd and X), directly as mossy fibers, and indirectly as climbing fibers from the inferior olive. Optic flow information is integrated with vestibular input in the VbC. There is a clear separation of function in the VbC: Purkinje cells in the flocculus process optic flow resulting from self-rotation, whereas Purkinje cells in the uvula/nodulus process optic flow resulting from self-translation. Furthermore, Purkinje cells with particular optic flow preferences are organized topographically into parasagittal "zones." These zones are correlated with expression of the isoenzyme aldolase C, also known as zebrin II (ZII). ZII expression is heterogeneous such that there are parasagittal stripes of Purkinje cells that have high expression (ZII+) alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with low expression (ZII-). A functional zone spans a ZII± stripe pair. That is, each zone that contains Purkinje cells responsive to a particular pattern of optic flow is subdivided into a strip containing ZII+ Purkinje cells and a strip containing ZII- Purkinje cells. Additionally, there is optic flow input to folia VI-VIII of the cerebellum from lentiformis mesencephali. These folia also receive visual input from the tectofugal system via pontine nuclei. As the tectofugal system is involved in the analysis of local motion, there is integration of optic flow and local motion information in VI-VIII. This part of the cerebellum may be important for moving through a cluttered environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A reduced schematic, showing the visual pathways (A) to the cerebellum (B) in birds. The cerebellum is divided into folia, numbered I–X from anterior to posterior (Larsell, 1967). Folia IXcd and X comprise the vestibulocerebellum, which receives optic flow input from the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and lentiformis mesencephali (LM) via a climbing fiber pathway through the medial column of the inferior olive (mcIO) (blue pathway) (Arends and Voogd, 1989; Lau et al., 1998). The LM and nBOR also project directly to folium IXcd as mossy fibers (green pathways) (Brauth and Karten, 1977; Clarke, 1977; Brecha et al., 1980; Wylie and Linkenhoker, 1996). The LM also projects to folia VI–VIII (red pathway), which are part of the oculomotor cerebellum (Voogd and Barmack, 2006). These folia also receive visual motion signals from a tecto-pontine system (red pathway) (Reiner and Karten, 1982). See text for additional details. LMm, i, l: the medial, intercalatus, and lateral divisions of LM. nBORd, p: the dorsalis and proper divisions of nBOR. VTA: ventral tegmental area.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569843&req=5

Figure 1: A reduced schematic, showing the visual pathways (A) to the cerebellum (B) in birds. The cerebellum is divided into folia, numbered I–X from anterior to posterior (Larsell, 1967). Folia IXcd and X comprise the vestibulocerebellum, which receives optic flow input from the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and lentiformis mesencephali (LM) via a climbing fiber pathway through the medial column of the inferior olive (mcIO) (blue pathway) (Arends and Voogd, 1989; Lau et al., 1998). The LM and nBOR also project directly to folium IXcd as mossy fibers (green pathways) (Brauth and Karten, 1977; Clarke, 1977; Brecha et al., 1980; Wylie and Linkenhoker, 1996). The LM also projects to folia VI–VIII (red pathway), which are part of the oculomotor cerebellum (Voogd and Barmack, 2006). These folia also receive visual motion signals from a tecto-pontine system (red pathway) (Reiner and Karten, 1982). See text for additional details. LMm, i, l: the medial, intercalatus, and lateral divisions of LM. nBORd, p: the dorsalis and proper divisions of nBOR. VTA: ventral tegmental area.

Mentions: The pathways from LM and nBOR to the cerebellum are shown in Figure 1. First, LM and nBOR project to the medial column of the inferior olive (mcIO), which in turn provides climbing fiber input to the vestibulocerebellum (VbC; folia IXcd and X) (blue pathway) (Clarke, 1977; Brecha et al., 1980; Gamlin and Cohen, 1988; Arends and Voogd, 1989; Wylie et al., 1997, 1999, 2007, 2008; Lau et al., 1998; Crowder et al., 2000; Wylie, 2001; Winship and Wylie, 2003; Pakan et al., 2005, 2006, 2010; Pakan and Wylie, 2006, 2008; Winship et al., 2006; Iwaniuk et al., 2009). Second, LM and nBOR project directly to IXcd of the VbC as mossy fibers (Brauth and Karten, 1977; Gamlin and Cohen, 1988; Wylie and Linkenhoker, 1996; Pakan et al., 2006, 2010; Wylie et al., 2007, 2008; Iwaniuk et al., 2009). Third, LM projects to folia VI–VIII, an area known as the “oculomotor cerebellum” (for review see Voogd and Barmack, 2006), where there is interaction with local motion inputs from a tecto-pontine system (Pakan et al., 2006). Each of the pathways is discussed below.


Processing of visual signals related to self-motion in the cerebellum of pigeons.

Wylie DR - Front Behav Neurosci (2013)

A reduced schematic, showing the visual pathways (A) to the cerebellum (B) in birds. The cerebellum is divided into folia, numbered I–X from anterior to posterior (Larsell, 1967). Folia IXcd and X comprise the vestibulocerebellum, which receives optic flow input from the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and lentiformis mesencephali (LM) via a climbing fiber pathway through the medial column of the inferior olive (mcIO) (blue pathway) (Arends and Voogd, 1989; Lau et al., 1998). The LM and nBOR also project directly to folium IXcd as mossy fibers (green pathways) (Brauth and Karten, 1977; Clarke, 1977; Brecha et al., 1980; Wylie and Linkenhoker, 1996). The LM also projects to folia VI–VIII (red pathway), which are part of the oculomotor cerebellum (Voogd and Barmack, 2006). These folia also receive visual motion signals from a tecto-pontine system (red pathway) (Reiner and Karten, 1982). See text for additional details. LMm, i, l: the medial, intercalatus, and lateral divisions of LM. nBORd, p: the dorsalis and proper divisions of nBOR. VTA: ventral tegmental area.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569843&req=5

Figure 1: A reduced schematic, showing the visual pathways (A) to the cerebellum (B) in birds. The cerebellum is divided into folia, numbered I–X from anterior to posterior (Larsell, 1967). Folia IXcd and X comprise the vestibulocerebellum, which receives optic flow input from the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and lentiformis mesencephali (LM) via a climbing fiber pathway through the medial column of the inferior olive (mcIO) (blue pathway) (Arends and Voogd, 1989; Lau et al., 1998). The LM and nBOR also project directly to folium IXcd as mossy fibers (green pathways) (Brauth and Karten, 1977; Clarke, 1977; Brecha et al., 1980; Wylie and Linkenhoker, 1996). The LM also projects to folia VI–VIII (red pathway), which are part of the oculomotor cerebellum (Voogd and Barmack, 2006). These folia also receive visual motion signals from a tecto-pontine system (red pathway) (Reiner and Karten, 1982). See text for additional details. LMm, i, l: the medial, intercalatus, and lateral divisions of LM. nBORd, p: the dorsalis and proper divisions of nBOR. VTA: ventral tegmental area.
Mentions: The pathways from LM and nBOR to the cerebellum are shown in Figure 1. First, LM and nBOR project to the medial column of the inferior olive (mcIO), which in turn provides climbing fiber input to the vestibulocerebellum (VbC; folia IXcd and X) (blue pathway) (Clarke, 1977; Brecha et al., 1980; Gamlin and Cohen, 1988; Arends and Voogd, 1989; Wylie et al., 1997, 1999, 2007, 2008; Lau et al., 1998; Crowder et al., 2000; Wylie, 2001; Winship and Wylie, 2003; Pakan et al., 2005, 2006, 2010; Pakan and Wylie, 2006, 2008; Winship et al., 2006; Iwaniuk et al., 2009). Second, LM and nBOR project directly to IXcd of the VbC as mossy fibers (Brauth and Karten, 1977; Gamlin and Cohen, 1988; Wylie and Linkenhoker, 1996; Pakan et al., 2006, 2010; Wylie et al., 2007, 2008; Iwaniuk et al., 2009). Third, LM projects to folia VI–VIII, an area known as the “oculomotor cerebellum” (for review see Voogd and Barmack, 2006), where there is interaction with local motion inputs from a tecto-pontine system (Pakan et al., 2006). Each of the pathways is discussed below.

Bottom Line: Optic flow is the visual motion that occurs across the entire retina as a result of self-motion and is processed by subcortical visual pathways that project to the cerebellum.As the tectofugal system is involved in the analysis of local motion, there is integration of optic flow and local motion information in VI-VIII.This part of the cerebellum may be important for moving through a cluttered environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, University of Alberta Edmonton, AB, Canada.

ABSTRACT
In this paper I describe the key features of optic flow processing in pigeons. Optic flow is the visual motion that occurs across the entire retina as a result of self-motion and is processed by subcortical visual pathways that project to the cerebellum. These pathways originate in two retinal-recipient nuclei, the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, which project to the vestibulocerebellum (VbC) (folia IXcd and X), directly as mossy fibers, and indirectly as climbing fibers from the inferior olive. Optic flow information is integrated with vestibular input in the VbC. There is a clear separation of function in the VbC: Purkinje cells in the flocculus process optic flow resulting from self-rotation, whereas Purkinje cells in the uvula/nodulus process optic flow resulting from self-translation. Furthermore, Purkinje cells with particular optic flow preferences are organized topographically into parasagittal "zones." These zones are correlated with expression of the isoenzyme aldolase C, also known as zebrin II (ZII). ZII expression is heterogeneous such that there are parasagittal stripes of Purkinje cells that have high expression (ZII+) alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with low expression (ZII-). A functional zone spans a ZII± stripe pair. That is, each zone that contains Purkinje cells responsive to a particular pattern of optic flow is subdivided into a strip containing ZII+ Purkinje cells and a strip containing ZII- Purkinje cells. Additionally, there is optic flow input to folia VI-VIII of the cerebellum from lentiformis mesencephali. These folia also receive visual input from the tectofugal system via pontine nuclei. As the tectofugal system is involved in the analysis of local motion, there is integration of optic flow and local motion information in VI-VIII. This part of the cerebellum may be important for moving through a cluttered environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus