Limits...
Motivation modulates visual attention: evidence from pupillometry.

Wykowska A, Anderl C, Schubö A, Hommel B - Front Psychol (2013)

Bottom Line: Increasing evidence suggests that action planning does not only affect the preparation and execution of overt actions but also "works back" to tune the perceptual system toward action-relevant information.We conclude that motivation and effort might play a crucial role in how much participants prepare for an action and activate action codes.The degree of activation of action codes in turn influences the observed action-related biases on perception.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Increasing evidence suggests that action planning does not only affect the preparation and execution of overt actions but also "works back" to tune the perceptual system toward action-relevant information. We investigated whether the amount of this impact of action planning on perceptual selection varies as a function of motivation for action, which was assessed online by means of pupillometry (Experiment 1) and visual analog scales (VAS, Experiment 2). Findings replicate the earlier observation that searching for size-defined targets is more efficient in the context of grasping than in the context of pointing movements (Wykowska et al., 2009). As expected, changes in tonic pupil size (reflecting changes in effort and motivation) across the sessions, as well as changes in motivation-related scores on the VAS were found to correlate with changes in the size of the action-perception congruency effect. We conclude that motivation and effort might play a crucial role in how much participants prepare for an action and activate action codes. The degree of activation of action codes in turn influences the observed action-related biases on perception.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scatter plots and linear regression curves indicating the correlation between changes in VAS score on the item “Interest” and congruency effects (left); and between changes in VAS score on the item “Motivation” and congruency effects (right) across the two experimental blocks in Experiment 2. The changes in VAS scores were calculated as Mean Score VAS3 − Mean Score VAS2. Therefore, positive values indicate decrease in pupil sizes. This is because the raw scores on VAS denoted the distance from the leftmost extreme (positive) to rightmost extreme (negative). Therefore, the smaller the numbers in raw scores, the more positive the state. Changes in congruency effects were calculated as Congruency Effect in RT/Error rateBlock1 − Congruency Effect in RT/Error rateBlock2. Positive values denote decrease in congruency effects across blocks.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569841&req=5

Figure 5: Scatter plots and linear regression curves indicating the correlation between changes in VAS score on the item “Interest” and congruency effects (left); and between changes in VAS score on the item “Motivation” and congruency effects (right) across the two experimental blocks in Experiment 2. The changes in VAS scores were calculated as Mean Score VAS3 − Mean Score VAS2. Therefore, positive values indicate decrease in pupil sizes. This is because the raw scores on VAS denoted the distance from the leftmost extreme (positive) to rightmost extreme (negative). Therefore, the smaller the numbers in raw scores, the more positive the state. Changes in congruency effects were calculated as Congruency Effect in RT/Error rateBlock1 − Congruency Effect in RT/Error rateBlock2. Positive values denote decrease in congruency effects across blocks.

Mentions: Initial level of motivation in the task, as measured by any of the four items of the VAS, did not correlate with the size of the congruency effects, all rs < 0.15, ps > 0.6. However, similarly to the pattern of Experiment 1, the difference in VAS scores between two experimental blocks correlated with the difference in congruency effect in RT for two items on VAS, namely Item “Interest” r(15) = 0.542, p < 0.05 and Item “Motivation” r(15) = 0.528, p < 0.05 when the scores of VAS3 were subtracted from the scores of VAS2, see Figure 5.


Motivation modulates visual attention: evidence from pupillometry.

Wykowska A, Anderl C, Schubö A, Hommel B - Front Psychol (2013)

Scatter plots and linear regression curves indicating the correlation between changes in VAS score on the item “Interest” and congruency effects (left); and between changes in VAS score on the item “Motivation” and congruency effects (right) across the two experimental blocks in Experiment 2. The changes in VAS scores were calculated as Mean Score VAS3 − Mean Score VAS2. Therefore, positive values indicate decrease in pupil sizes. This is because the raw scores on VAS denoted the distance from the leftmost extreme (positive) to rightmost extreme (negative). Therefore, the smaller the numbers in raw scores, the more positive the state. Changes in congruency effects were calculated as Congruency Effect in RT/Error rateBlock1 − Congruency Effect in RT/Error rateBlock2. Positive values denote decrease in congruency effects across blocks.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569841&req=5

Figure 5: Scatter plots and linear regression curves indicating the correlation between changes in VAS score on the item “Interest” and congruency effects (left); and between changes in VAS score on the item “Motivation” and congruency effects (right) across the two experimental blocks in Experiment 2. The changes in VAS scores were calculated as Mean Score VAS3 − Mean Score VAS2. Therefore, positive values indicate decrease in pupil sizes. This is because the raw scores on VAS denoted the distance from the leftmost extreme (positive) to rightmost extreme (negative). Therefore, the smaller the numbers in raw scores, the more positive the state. Changes in congruency effects were calculated as Congruency Effect in RT/Error rateBlock1 − Congruency Effect in RT/Error rateBlock2. Positive values denote decrease in congruency effects across blocks.
Mentions: Initial level of motivation in the task, as measured by any of the four items of the VAS, did not correlate with the size of the congruency effects, all rs < 0.15, ps > 0.6. However, similarly to the pattern of Experiment 1, the difference in VAS scores between two experimental blocks correlated with the difference in congruency effect in RT for two items on VAS, namely Item “Interest” r(15) = 0.542, p < 0.05 and Item “Motivation” r(15) = 0.528, p < 0.05 when the scores of VAS3 were subtracted from the scores of VAS2, see Figure 5.

Bottom Line: Increasing evidence suggests that action planning does not only affect the preparation and execution of overt actions but also "works back" to tune the perceptual system toward action-relevant information.We conclude that motivation and effort might play a crucial role in how much participants prepare for an action and activate action codes.The degree of activation of action codes in turn influences the observed action-related biases on perception.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Increasing evidence suggests that action planning does not only affect the preparation and execution of overt actions but also "works back" to tune the perceptual system toward action-relevant information. We investigated whether the amount of this impact of action planning on perceptual selection varies as a function of motivation for action, which was assessed online by means of pupillometry (Experiment 1) and visual analog scales (VAS, Experiment 2). Findings replicate the earlier observation that searching for size-defined targets is more efficient in the context of grasping than in the context of pointing movements (Wykowska et al., 2009). As expected, changes in tonic pupil size (reflecting changes in effort and motivation) across the sessions, as well as changes in motivation-related scores on the VAS were found to correlate with changes in the size of the action-perception congruency effect. We conclude that motivation and effort might play a crucial role in how much participants prepare for an action and activate action codes. The degree of activation of action codes in turn influences the observed action-related biases on perception.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus