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Motivation modulates visual attention: evidence from pupillometry.

Wykowska A, Anderl C, Schubö A, Hommel B - Front Psychol (2013)

Bottom Line: Increasing evidence suggests that action planning does not only affect the preparation and execution of overt actions but also "works back" to tune the perceptual system toward action-relevant information.We conclude that motivation and effort might play a crucial role in how much participants prepare for an action and activate action codes.The degree of activation of action codes in turn influences the observed action-related biases on perception.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Increasing evidence suggests that action planning does not only affect the preparation and execution of overt actions but also "works back" to tune the perceptual system toward action-relevant information. We investigated whether the amount of this impact of action planning on perceptual selection varies as a function of motivation for action, which was assessed online by means of pupillometry (Experiment 1) and visual analog scales (VAS, Experiment 2). Findings replicate the earlier observation that searching for size-defined targets is more efficient in the context of grasping than in the context of pointing movements (Wykowska et al., 2009). As expected, changes in tonic pupil size (reflecting changes in effort and motivation) across the sessions, as well as changes in motivation-related scores on the VAS were found to correlate with changes in the size of the action-perception congruency effect. We conclude that motivation and effort might play a crucial role in how much participants prepare for an action and activate action codes. The degree of activation of action codes in turn influences the observed action-related biases on perception.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean RTs as a function of congruency and block in Experiment 1. Congruent (white bars) and incongruent condition (gray bars) for target present displays in the first block (left) and second block (right). Error bars indicate the standard errors of the mean, adapted to within-participants designs, according to procedure described in Cousineau (2005).
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Figure 2: Mean RTs as a function of congruency and block in Experiment 1. Congruent (white bars) and incongruent condition (gray bars) for target present displays in the first block (left) and second block (right). Error bars indicate the standard errors of the mean, adapted to within-participants designs, according to procedure described in Cousineau (2005).

Mentions: RTs from the search task were analyzed as a function of congruency, display type (target present or absent), and block (see Figure 2). A repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant main effects of congruency, F(1, 14) = 4.81, p < 0.05, with responses in the search task being faster for the congruent (M = 535 ms, SEM = 29 ms) than the incongruent condition (M = 549 ms, SEM = 34 ms); display type, F(1, 14) = 6.36, p < 0.05, with faster responses to target present displays (M = 526 ms, SEM = 34 ms) compared to target absent displays (M = 559 ms, SEM = 29 ms); and Block, F(1, 14) = 6.29, p < 0.05, with slower responses in the first (M = 563 ms, SEM = 29 ms) than the second block (M = 522 ms, SEM = 35 ms). None of the interactions reached the level of significance, all Fs < 1, ps > 0.4.


Motivation modulates visual attention: evidence from pupillometry.

Wykowska A, Anderl C, Schubö A, Hommel B - Front Psychol (2013)

Mean RTs as a function of congruency and block in Experiment 1. Congruent (white bars) and incongruent condition (gray bars) for target present displays in the first block (left) and second block (right). Error bars indicate the standard errors of the mean, adapted to within-participants designs, according to procedure described in Cousineau (2005).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569841&req=5

Figure 2: Mean RTs as a function of congruency and block in Experiment 1. Congruent (white bars) and incongruent condition (gray bars) for target present displays in the first block (left) and second block (right). Error bars indicate the standard errors of the mean, adapted to within-participants designs, according to procedure described in Cousineau (2005).
Mentions: RTs from the search task were analyzed as a function of congruency, display type (target present or absent), and block (see Figure 2). A repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant main effects of congruency, F(1, 14) = 4.81, p < 0.05, with responses in the search task being faster for the congruent (M = 535 ms, SEM = 29 ms) than the incongruent condition (M = 549 ms, SEM = 34 ms); display type, F(1, 14) = 6.36, p < 0.05, with faster responses to target present displays (M = 526 ms, SEM = 34 ms) compared to target absent displays (M = 559 ms, SEM = 29 ms); and Block, F(1, 14) = 6.29, p < 0.05, with slower responses in the first (M = 563 ms, SEM = 29 ms) than the second block (M = 522 ms, SEM = 35 ms). None of the interactions reached the level of significance, all Fs < 1, ps > 0.4.

Bottom Line: Increasing evidence suggests that action planning does not only affect the preparation and execution of overt actions but also "works back" to tune the perceptual system toward action-relevant information.We conclude that motivation and effort might play a crucial role in how much participants prepare for an action and activate action codes.The degree of activation of action codes in turn influences the observed action-related biases on perception.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Increasing evidence suggests that action planning does not only affect the preparation and execution of overt actions but also "works back" to tune the perceptual system toward action-relevant information. We investigated whether the amount of this impact of action planning on perceptual selection varies as a function of motivation for action, which was assessed online by means of pupillometry (Experiment 1) and visual analog scales (VAS, Experiment 2). Findings replicate the earlier observation that searching for size-defined targets is more efficient in the context of grasping than in the context of pointing movements (Wykowska et al., 2009). As expected, changes in tonic pupil size (reflecting changes in effort and motivation) across the sessions, as well as changes in motivation-related scores on the VAS were found to correlate with changes in the size of the action-perception congruency effect. We conclude that motivation and effort might play a crucial role in how much participants prepare for an action and activate action codes. The degree of activation of action codes in turn influences the observed action-related biases on perception.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus