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"Trilongins" offer insight into mold toxicity.

Weinhold B - Environ. Health Perspect. (2013)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

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Mold contamination inside buildings is a widespread occurrence that can cause a range of adverse health effects in certain people... Each mold species produces a unique set of toxins depending on species, strain, and growing conditions (e.g., temperature, incubation time, nutrient source, associated substances), with some uncertainty continuing to occur as toxin identification science is refined, according to principal investigator Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen, research director for the Department of Food and Environmental Sciences at Finland’s University of Helsinki... T. longibrachiatum, a fungus commonly found around the globe in a variety of damp indoor and outdoor settings, has been identified in a handful of case reports as an emerging human pathogen implicated in allergic sinusitis, lung and skin infections, and fatal postoperative infections in immunocompromised patients... Additional observed damage, generally consistent with other research, included sperm motility inhibition and mitochondrial depolarization... The team discovered that the peptaibols acted synergistically, with greater damage caused by isolates in which the two classes were combined... In toxicity tests, the half-maximal effective concentration of combined peptaibol classes was 5–25 times lower than that of single classes... Channels remained open about twice as long after exposure to combined classes, compared with exposure to a single class... Salkinoja-Salonen says her team coined the term “trilongins” (“trilong-” is from “Trichoderma longibrachiatum,” and “-in” is the suffix for any peptaibol toxin) for the specific sets of peptaibols they identified to distinguish the unique group effect from that of single peptaibols... Boar sperm cells are good for studying mitochondria and mitochondrial toxins because the tail of the sperm contains many mitochondria that produce ATP, which is thought to power the flagellum, says Harriet Ammann, a toxicologist in Olympia, Wash-ing-ton, and a member of the committee that produced the 2004 U.S. Institute of Medicine publication Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. “Inhibition of motility is a sign of decreased or abolished mitochondrial function,” she explains... Ammann points out that the documented mitochondrial effect could be critical since it indicates that a key function, energy production, could be significantly impaired. “Disabling of mitochondria could have widespread deleterious effects across systems, leading to greater susceptibility to infectious disease, an effect of this fungus already documented,” she says... In addition, she says, Trichoderma species produce other toxins with different mechanisms, which in all likelihood also work either additively or synergistically with peptaibols.

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This sample of T. longibrachiatum was isolated from a moisture-damaged residence in Finland. After growing for 5 days at 37˚C, up to 2% of the fungal biomass by weight consisted of toxic trilongins.Maria A. Andersson, Mari Raulio, Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen
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f1: This sample of T. longibrachiatum was isolated from a moisture-damaged residence in Finland. After growing for 5 days at 37˚C, up to 2% of the fungal biomass by weight consisted of toxic trilongins.Maria A. Andersson, Mari Raulio, Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen


"Trilongins" offer insight into mold toxicity.

Weinhold B - Environ. Health Perspect. (2013)

This sample of T. longibrachiatum was isolated from a moisture-damaged residence in Finland. After growing for 5 days at 37˚C, up to 2% of the fungal biomass by weight consisted of toxic trilongins.Maria A. Andersson, Mari Raulio, Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569696&req=5

f1: This sample of T. longibrachiatum was isolated from a moisture-damaged residence in Finland. After growing for 5 days at 37˚C, up to 2% of the fungal biomass by weight consisted of toxic trilongins.Maria A. Andersson, Mari Raulio, Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Mold contamination inside buildings is a widespread occurrence that can cause a range of adverse health effects in certain people... Each mold species produces a unique set of toxins depending on species, strain, and growing conditions (e.g., temperature, incubation time, nutrient source, associated substances), with some uncertainty continuing to occur as toxin identification science is refined, according to principal investigator Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen, research director for the Department of Food and Environmental Sciences at Finland’s University of Helsinki... T. longibrachiatum, a fungus commonly found around the globe in a variety of damp indoor and outdoor settings, has been identified in a handful of case reports as an emerging human pathogen implicated in allergic sinusitis, lung and skin infections, and fatal postoperative infections in immunocompromised patients... Additional observed damage, generally consistent with other research, included sperm motility inhibition and mitochondrial depolarization... The team discovered that the peptaibols acted synergistically, with greater damage caused by isolates in which the two classes were combined... In toxicity tests, the half-maximal effective concentration of combined peptaibol classes was 5–25 times lower than that of single classes... Channels remained open about twice as long after exposure to combined classes, compared with exposure to a single class... Salkinoja-Salonen says her team coined the term “trilongins” (“trilong-” is from “Trichoderma longibrachiatum,” and “-in” is the suffix for any peptaibol toxin) for the specific sets of peptaibols they identified to distinguish the unique group effect from that of single peptaibols... Boar sperm cells are good for studying mitochondria and mitochondrial toxins because the tail of the sperm contains many mitochondria that produce ATP, which is thought to power the flagellum, says Harriet Ammann, a toxicologist in Olympia, Wash-ing-ton, and a member of the committee that produced the 2004 U.S. Institute of Medicine publication Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. “Inhibition of motility is a sign of decreased or abolished mitochondrial function,” she explains... Ammann points out that the documented mitochondrial effect could be critical since it indicates that a key function, energy production, could be significantly impaired. “Disabling of mitochondria could have widespread deleterious effects across systems, leading to greater susceptibility to infectious disease, an effect of this fungus already documented,” she says... In addition, she says, Trichoderma species produce other toxins with different mechanisms, which in all likelihood also work either additively or synergistically with peptaibols.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus