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Investigation of Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm formation by various "omics" approaches.

Muszkieta L, Beauvais A, Pähtz V, Gibbons JG, Anton Leberre V, Beau R, Shibuya K, Rokas A, Francois JM, Kniemeyer O, Brakhage AA, Latgé JP - Front Microbiol (2013)

Bottom Line: In the lung, Aspergillus fumigatus usually forms a dense colony of filaments embedded in a polymeric extracellular matrix called biofilm (BF).This extracellular matrix embeds and glues hyphae together and protects the fungus from an outside hostile environment.Recent works have shown that the fungus in this aerial grown BF-like state exhibits reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs and undergoes major metabolic changes that are thought to be associated to virulence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unité des Aspergillus, Institut Pasteur Paris Cedex, France.

ABSTRACT
In the lung, Aspergillus fumigatus usually forms a dense colony of filaments embedded in a polymeric extracellular matrix called biofilm (BF). This extracellular matrix embeds and glues hyphae together and protects the fungus from an outside hostile environment. This extracellular matrix is absent in fungal colonies grown under classical liquid shake conditions (PL), which were historically used to understand A. fumigatus pathobiology. Recent works have shown that the fungus in this aerial grown BF-like state exhibits reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs and undergoes major metabolic changes that are thought to be associated to virulence. These differences in pathological and physiological characteristics between BF and liquid shake conditions suggest that the PL condition is a poor in vitro disease model. In the laboratory, A. fumigatus mycelium embedded by the extracellular matrix can be produced in vitro in aerial condition using an agar-based medium. To provide a global and accurate understanding of A. fumigatus in vitro BF growth, we utilized microarray, RNA-sequencing, and proteomic analysis to compare the global gene and protein expression profiles of A. fumigatus grown under BF and PL conditions. In this review, we will present the different signatures obtained with these three "omics" methods. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of each method and their complementarity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Transmission electron microscopy showing the ultrastructure of A. fumigatus biofilm in vivo and in vitro. (A) Invasive aspergillosis in human lung; (B) Aspergilloma in human lung; and (C) 24 h static and aerial culture of A. fumigatus at 30°C. Note the presence of an extracellular material (ECM, arrow) at the surface of the hyphae (H).
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Figure 1: Transmission electron microscopy showing the ultrastructure of A. fumigatus biofilm in vivo and in vitro. (A) Invasive aspergillosis in human lung; (B) Aspergilloma in human lung; and (C) 24 h static and aerial culture of A. fumigatus at 30°C. Note the presence of an extracellular material (ECM, arrow) at the surface of the hyphae (H).

Mentions: During lung infection, Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae are covered by an extracellular matrix (Figures 1A,B) (Loussert et al., 2010). In the case of aspergilloma, hyphae are embedded together in this dense extracellular matrix whereas in invasive aspergillosis hyphae are individually engulfed in the matrix (Figures 1A,B) (Beauvais et al., 2007; Muller et al., 2011). This extracellular matrix protects the fungus against host defense reactions as well as antifungal drugs. The in vivo composition of the mycelial extracellular matrix of A. fumigatus has been reported during host infection (Loussert et al., 2010). The extracellular matrix is composed of polysaccharides, pigment, and proteins. A. fumigatus biofilm (BF) condition can be reproduced in vitro. Indeed, the mycelium growing on porous plastic film deposited on the surface of agar medium plate is able to form an extracellular matrix with a composition closely similar to the in vivo with tightly bound hyphae (Figure 1C) (Beauvais et al., 2007). In contrast, this extracellular matrix is absent in mycelia grown in shake cultures and hyphae are only loosely associated. These differences in organizational and physiological characteristics between the mycelium growing under “planktonic” or “biofilm” condition are associated with specific transcriptional and translational signatures. As the development of the fungal BF in vivo is more close to aerial colony grown on a solid substratum in vitro, it is expected that an analysis of the colony physiology may help to understand the in vivo growth of A. fumigatus in patients.


Investigation of Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm formation by various "omics" approaches.

Muszkieta L, Beauvais A, Pähtz V, Gibbons JG, Anton Leberre V, Beau R, Shibuya K, Rokas A, Francois JM, Kniemeyer O, Brakhage AA, Latgé JP - Front Microbiol (2013)

Transmission electron microscopy showing the ultrastructure of A. fumigatus biofilm in vivo and in vitro. (A) Invasive aspergillosis in human lung; (B) Aspergilloma in human lung; and (C) 24 h static and aerial culture of A. fumigatus at 30°C. Note the presence of an extracellular material (ECM, arrow) at the surface of the hyphae (H).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569664&req=5

Figure 1: Transmission electron microscopy showing the ultrastructure of A. fumigatus biofilm in vivo and in vitro. (A) Invasive aspergillosis in human lung; (B) Aspergilloma in human lung; and (C) 24 h static and aerial culture of A. fumigatus at 30°C. Note the presence of an extracellular material (ECM, arrow) at the surface of the hyphae (H).
Mentions: During lung infection, Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae are covered by an extracellular matrix (Figures 1A,B) (Loussert et al., 2010). In the case of aspergilloma, hyphae are embedded together in this dense extracellular matrix whereas in invasive aspergillosis hyphae are individually engulfed in the matrix (Figures 1A,B) (Beauvais et al., 2007; Muller et al., 2011). This extracellular matrix protects the fungus against host defense reactions as well as antifungal drugs. The in vivo composition of the mycelial extracellular matrix of A. fumigatus has been reported during host infection (Loussert et al., 2010). The extracellular matrix is composed of polysaccharides, pigment, and proteins. A. fumigatus biofilm (BF) condition can be reproduced in vitro. Indeed, the mycelium growing on porous plastic film deposited on the surface of agar medium plate is able to form an extracellular matrix with a composition closely similar to the in vivo with tightly bound hyphae (Figure 1C) (Beauvais et al., 2007). In contrast, this extracellular matrix is absent in mycelia grown in shake cultures and hyphae are only loosely associated. These differences in organizational and physiological characteristics between the mycelium growing under “planktonic” or “biofilm” condition are associated with specific transcriptional and translational signatures. As the development of the fungal BF in vivo is more close to aerial colony grown on a solid substratum in vitro, it is expected that an analysis of the colony physiology may help to understand the in vivo growth of A. fumigatus in patients.

Bottom Line: In the lung, Aspergillus fumigatus usually forms a dense colony of filaments embedded in a polymeric extracellular matrix called biofilm (BF).This extracellular matrix embeds and glues hyphae together and protects the fungus from an outside hostile environment.Recent works have shown that the fungus in this aerial grown BF-like state exhibits reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs and undergoes major metabolic changes that are thought to be associated to virulence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unité des Aspergillus, Institut Pasteur Paris Cedex, France.

ABSTRACT
In the lung, Aspergillus fumigatus usually forms a dense colony of filaments embedded in a polymeric extracellular matrix called biofilm (BF). This extracellular matrix embeds and glues hyphae together and protects the fungus from an outside hostile environment. This extracellular matrix is absent in fungal colonies grown under classical liquid shake conditions (PL), which were historically used to understand A. fumigatus pathobiology. Recent works have shown that the fungus in this aerial grown BF-like state exhibits reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs and undergoes major metabolic changes that are thought to be associated to virulence. These differences in pathological and physiological characteristics between BF and liquid shake conditions suggest that the PL condition is a poor in vitro disease model. In the laboratory, A. fumigatus mycelium embedded by the extracellular matrix can be produced in vitro in aerial condition using an agar-based medium. To provide a global and accurate understanding of A. fumigatus in vitro BF growth, we utilized microarray, RNA-sequencing, and proteomic analysis to compare the global gene and protein expression profiles of A. fumigatus grown under BF and PL conditions. In this review, we will present the different signatures obtained with these three "omics" methods. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of each method and their complementarity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus