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Anticipatory regulation of action control in a simon task: behavioral, electrophysiological, and FMRI correlates.

Strack G, Kaufmann C, Kehrer S, Brandt S, Stürmer B - Front Psychol (2013)

Bottom Line: Cues informed either about the upcoming (1) spatial stimulus-response compatibility (rule cues), or (2) the stimulus location (position cues), or (3) were non-informative.Pre-SMA and ventrolateral prefrontal activation after rule cues correlated with the effective use of rule cues in behavioral performance.Our data point to the importance to disentangle different anticipatory adjustments that might also include the prevention of upcoming conflict via task re-coding.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
With the present study we investigated cue-induced preparation in a Simon task and measured electroencephalogram and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in two within-subjects sessions. Cues informed either about the upcoming (1) spatial stimulus-response compatibility (rule cues), or (2) the stimulus location (position cues), or (3) were non-informative. Only rule cues allowed anticipating the upcoming compatibility condition. Position cues allowed anticipation of the upcoming location of the Simon stimulus but not its compatibility condition. Rule cues elicited fastest and most accurate performance for both compatible and incompatible trials. The contingent negative variation (CNV) in the event-related potential (ERP) of the cue-target interval is an index of anticipatory preparation and was magnified after rule cues. The N2 in the post-target ERP as a measure of online action control was reduced in Simon trials after rule cues. Although compatible trials were faster than incompatible trials in all cue conditions only non-informative cues revealed a compatibility effect in additional indicators of Simon task conflict like accuracy and the N2. We thus conclude that rule cues induced anticipatory re-coding of the Simon task that did not involve cognitive conflict anymore. fMRI revealed that rule cues yielded more activation of the left rostral, dorsal, and ventral prefrontal cortex as well as the pre-SMA as compared to POS and NON-cues. Pre-SMA and ventrolateral prefrontal activation after rule cues correlated with the effective use of rule cues in behavioral performance. Position cues induced a smaller CNV effect and exhibited less prefrontal and pre-SMA contributions in fMRI. Our data point to the importance to disentangle different anticipatory adjustments that might also include the prevention of upcoming conflict via task re-coding.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Activation patterns in brain areas associated with rule cue-induced pre-target processes. A FDR-corrected (p < 0.05, k ≥ 25 voxels) T-maps contrasting RULE > NON (red color) and RULE > POS (cyan color, superimposed) are plotted on a single subject Colin brain in MNI space (highlighted areas of interest correspond to Talairach peak voxel coordinates in Tables 2 and 4).
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Figure 6: Activation patterns in brain areas associated with rule cue-induced pre-target processes. A FDR-corrected (p < 0.05, k ≥ 25 voxels) T-maps contrasting RULE > NON (red color) and RULE > POS (cyan color, superimposed) are plotted on a single subject Colin brain in MNI space (highlighted areas of interest correspond to Talairach peak voxel coordinates in Tables 2 and 4).

Mentions: The contrast of RULE cue > NON-cue highlighted a widespread fronto-posterior network of RULE cue-induced anticipation including frontal areas such as the left lateral rostral prefrontal cortex (rPFC), left posterior vlPFC, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and the pre-SMA (see Figure 6; Table 2 for a complete list that contains also temporal, occipital, basal ganglia, and thalamic activation). The reversed contrast NON-cue > RULE cue involved the medial rPFC, right dlPFC, and the ACC among other activations (see Table 2).


Anticipatory regulation of action control in a simon task: behavioral, electrophysiological, and FMRI correlates.

Strack G, Kaufmann C, Kehrer S, Brandt S, Stürmer B - Front Psychol (2013)

Activation patterns in brain areas associated with rule cue-induced pre-target processes. A FDR-corrected (p < 0.05, k ≥ 25 voxels) T-maps contrasting RULE > NON (red color) and RULE > POS (cyan color, superimposed) are plotted on a single subject Colin brain in MNI space (highlighted areas of interest correspond to Talairach peak voxel coordinates in Tables 2 and 4).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569607&req=5

Figure 6: Activation patterns in brain areas associated with rule cue-induced pre-target processes. A FDR-corrected (p < 0.05, k ≥ 25 voxels) T-maps contrasting RULE > NON (red color) and RULE > POS (cyan color, superimposed) are plotted on a single subject Colin brain in MNI space (highlighted areas of interest correspond to Talairach peak voxel coordinates in Tables 2 and 4).
Mentions: The contrast of RULE cue > NON-cue highlighted a widespread fronto-posterior network of RULE cue-induced anticipation including frontal areas such as the left lateral rostral prefrontal cortex (rPFC), left posterior vlPFC, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and the pre-SMA (see Figure 6; Table 2 for a complete list that contains also temporal, occipital, basal ganglia, and thalamic activation). The reversed contrast NON-cue > RULE cue involved the medial rPFC, right dlPFC, and the ACC among other activations (see Table 2).

Bottom Line: Cues informed either about the upcoming (1) spatial stimulus-response compatibility (rule cues), or (2) the stimulus location (position cues), or (3) were non-informative.Pre-SMA and ventrolateral prefrontal activation after rule cues correlated with the effective use of rule cues in behavioral performance.Our data point to the importance to disentangle different anticipatory adjustments that might also include the prevention of upcoming conflict via task re-coding.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
With the present study we investigated cue-induced preparation in a Simon task and measured electroencephalogram and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in two within-subjects sessions. Cues informed either about the upcoming (1) spatial stimulus-response compatibility (rule cues), or (2) the stimulus location (position cues), or (3) were non-informative. Only rule cues allowed anticipating the upcoming compatibility condition. Position cues allowed anticipation of the upcoming location of the Simon stimulus but not its compatibility condition. Rule cues elicited fastest and most accurate performance for both compatible and incompatible trials. The contingent negative variation (CNV) in the event-related potential (ERP) of the cue-target interval is an index of anticipatory preparation and was magnified after rule cues. The N2 in the post-target ERP as a measure of online action control was reduced in Simon trials after rule cues. Although compatible trials were faster than incompatible trials in all cue conditions only non-informative cues revealed a compatibility effect in additional indicators of Simon task conflict like accuracy and the N2. We thus conclude that rule cues induced anticipatory re-coding of the Simon task that did not involve cognitive conflict anymore. fMRI revealed that rule cues yielded more activation of the left rostral, dorsal, and ventral prefrontal cortex as well as the pre-SMA as compared to POS and NON-cues. Pre-SMA and ventrolateral prefrontal activation after rule cues correlated with the effective use of rule cues in behavioral performance. Position cues induced a smaller CNV effect and exhibited less prefrontal and pre-SMA contributions in fMRI. Our data point to the importance to disentangle different anticipatory adjustments that might also include the prevention of upcoming conflict via task re-coding.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus