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How motivation affects academic performance: a structural equation modelling analysis.

Kusurkar RA, Ten Cate TJ, Vos CM, Westers P, Croiset G - Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract (2012)

Bottom Line: Differences were found in the strength of relationships between the variables for the different subgroups as expected.In conclusion, RAM positively correlated with academic performance through deep strategy towards study and higher study effort.This model seems valid in medical education in subgroups such as males, females, students selected by qualitative and weighted lottery selection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Research and Development of Education, University Medical Center Utrecht, P.O. Box # 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands. R.Kusurkar@umcutrecht.nl

ABSTRACT
Few studies in medical education have studied effect of quality of motivation on performance. Self-Determination Theory based on quality of motivation differentiates between Autonomous Motivation (AM) that originates within an individual and Controlled Motivation (CM) that originates from external sources. To determine whether Relative Autonomous Motivation (RAM, a measure of the balance between AM and CM) affects academic performance through good study strategy and higher study effort and compare this model between subgroups: males and females; students selected via two different systems namely qualitative and weighted lottery selection. Data on motivation, study strategy and effort was collected from 383 medical students of VU University Medical Center Amsterdam and their academic performance results were obtained from the student administration. Structural Equation Modelling analysis technique was used to test a hypothesized model in which high RAM would positively affect Good Study Strategy (GSS) and study effort, which in turn would positively affect academic performance in the form of grade point averages. This model fit well with the data, Chi square = 1.095, df = 3, p = 0.778, RMSEA model fit = 0.000. This model also fitted well for all tested subgroups of students. Differences were found in the strength of relationships between the variables for the different subgroups as expected. In conclusion, RAM positively correlated with academic performance through deep strategy towards study and higher study effort. This model seems valid in medical education in subgroups such as males, females, students selected by qualitative and weighted lottery selection.

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The self-determination continuum (adapted from Deci and Ryan 2000)
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Fig1: The self-determination continuum (adapted from Deci and Ryan 2000)

Mentions: There are different theories of motivation; some focus on quantity of motivation and others on quality. Quantity of motivation could be high or low. Quality of motivation depends on whether the source of motivation is internal or external. Self-determination Theory (SDT) of motivation considers quality of motivation to be more important than quantity and describes a continuum for quality of motivation (Ryan and Deci 2000a, b). This ranges from intrinsic motivation at one end to amotivation at the other end of the continuum, with four types of extrinsic motivation (integrated regulation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation) in between. Intrinsic motivation is derived out of genuine interest in an activity. Extrinsic motivation is derived out of an expected gain or a separable outcome. As elaborated by SDT, not all types of extrinsic motivation are undesirable. Extrinsic motivation spans from high self-determination to low self-determination (see Fig. 1; Ryan and Deci 2000a, b). Identified Regulation, the highly autonomous type of extrinsic motivation, is close to intrinsic motivation. Identified regulation and intrinsic motivation can be summed up to generate Autonomous Motivation (AM). Thus AM depicts self-determined motivation. Introjected and external regulation, which are low in self-determination, can be summed up together to generate Controlled Motivation (CM). Thus CM depicts motivation which is very low on self-determination.Fig. 1


How motivation affects academic performance: a structural equation modelling analysis.

Kusurkar RA, Ten Cate TJ, Vos CM, Westers P, Croiset G - Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract (2012)

The self-determination continuum (adapted from Deci and Ryan 2000)
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569579&req=5

Fig1: The self-determination continuum (adapted from Deci and Ryan 2000)
Mentions: There are different theories of motivation; some focus on quantity of motivation and others on quality. Quantity of motivation could be high or low. Quality of motivation depends on whether the source of motivation is internal or external. Self-determination Theory (SDT) of motivation considers quality of motivation to be more important than quantity and describes a continuum for quality of motivation (Ryan and Deci 2000a, b). This ranges from intrinsic motivation at one end to amotivation at the other end of the continuum, with four types of extrinsic motivation (integrated regulation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation) in between. Intrinsic motivation is derived out of genuine interest in an activity. Extrinsic motivation is derived out of an expected gain or a separable outcome. As elaborated by SDT, not all types of extrinsic motivation are undesirable. Extrinsic motivation spans from high self-determination to low self-determination (see Fig. 1; Ryan and Deci 2000a, b). Identified Regulation, the highly autonomous type of extrinsic motivation, is close to intrinsic motivation. Identified regulation and intrinsic motivation can be summed up to generate Autonomous Motivation (AM). Thus AM depicts self-determined motivation. Introjected and external regulation, which are low in self-determination, can be summed up together to generate Controlled Motivation (CM). Thus CM depicts motivation which is very low on self-determination.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Differences were found in the strength of relationships between the variables for the different subgroups as expected.In conclusion, RAM positively correlated with academic performance through deep strategy towards study and higher study effort.This model seems valid in medical education in subgroups such as males, females, students selected by qualitative and weighted lottery selection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Research and Development of Education, University Medical Center Utrecht, P.O. Box # 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands. R.Kusurkar@umcutrecht.nl

ABSTRACT
Few studies in medical education have studied effect of quality of motivation on performance. Self-Determination Theory based on quality of motivation differentiates between Autonomous Motivation (AM) that originates within an individual and Controlled Motivation (CM) that originates from external sources. To determine whether Relative Autonomous Motivation (RAM, a measure of the balance between AM and CM) affects academic performance through good study strategy and higher study effort and compare this model between subgroups: males and females; students selected via two different systems namely qualitative and weighted lottery selection. Data on motivation, study strategy and effort was collected from 383 medical students of VU University Medical Center Amsterdam and their academic performance results were obtained from the student administration. Structural Equation Modelling analysis technique was used to test a hypothesized model in which high RAM would positively affect Good Study Strategy (GSS) and study effort, which in turn would positively affect academic performance in the form of grade point averages. This model fit well with the data, Chi square = 1.095, df = 3, p = 0.778, RMSEA model fit = 0.000. This model also fitted well for all tested subgroups of students. Differences were found in the strength of relationships between the variables for the different subgroups as expected. In conclusion, RAM positively correlated with academic performance through deep strategy towards study and higher study effort. This model seems valid in medical education in subgroups such as males, females, students selected by qualitative and weighted lottery selection.

Show MeSH