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Imaging and Imaging-Guided Interventions in the Diagnosis and Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)-Review of Evidence.

Ghanaati H, Alavian SM, Jafarian A, Ebrahimi Daryani N, Nassiri-Toosi M, Jalali AH, Shakiba M - Iran J Radiol (2012)

Bottom Line: A variety of imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine are currently used in evaluating patients with HCC.Although the best option for the treatment of these cases is hepatic resection or transplantation, only 20% of HCCs are surgically treatable.In those patients who are not eligible for surgical treatment, interventional therapies such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radio-frequency ablation (RFA), percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMC), laser ablation or cryoablation, and acetic acid injection are indicated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

ABSTRACT
The imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is challenging and plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and staging of the disease. A variety of imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine are currently used in evaluating patients with HCC. Although the best option for the treatment of these cases is hepatic resection or transplantation, only 20% of HCCs are surgically treatable. In those patients who are not eligible for surgical treatment, interventional therapies such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radio-frequency ablation (RFA), percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMC), laser ablation or cryoablation, and acetic acid injection are indicated. In this paper, we aimed to review the evidence regarding imaging modalities and therapeutic interventions of HCC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Helical CT in hepatocellular carcinomaA, Hepatocellular carcinoma. Nonenhancing helical CT shows a low density structure (lesion) with an ill-defined border in the left hepatic lobe; B, Hepatic parenchymal phase of helical CT shows a solid enhanced lesion with central scar.
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fig751: Helical CT in hepatocellular carcinomaA, Hepatocellular carcinoma. Nonenhancing helical CT shows a low density structure (lesion) with an ill-defined border in the left hepatic lobe; B, Hepatic parenchymal phase of helical CT shows a solid enhanced lesion with central scar.

Mentions: Detection and characterization of the tumor is the aim of imaging in HCC. The diagnosis is suspected when the lesion shows increased arterial flow, pseudocapsule, internal septa and a mosaic appearance. Generally, HCC has hepatic arterial enhancement. During the portal and venous phases, the tumor fades off and the pseudocapsule shows bright enhancement (15). Larger HCCs are usually heterogeneous and have central necrosis with abnormal internal vessels (16). Ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI are diagnostic modalities which are used in the diagnosis and follow-up of HCC (Figure 1). The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) algorithm for diagnosis of HCC is shown in Figure 2 (16).


Imaging and Imaging-Guided Interventions in the Diagnosis and Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)-Review of Evidence.

Ghanaati H, Alavian SM, Jafarian A, Ebrahimi Daryani N, Nassiri-Toosi M, Jalali AH, Shakiba M - Iran J Radiol (2012)

Helical CT in hepatocellular carcinomaA, Hepatocellular carcinoma. Nonenhancing helical CT shows a low density structure (lesion) with an ill-defined border in the left hepatic lobe; B, Hepatic parenchymal phase of helical CT shows a solid enhanced lesion with central scar.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569547&req=5

fig751: Helical CT in hepatocellular carcinomaA, Hepatocellular carcinoma. Nonenhancing helical CT shows a low density structure (lesion) with an ill-defined border in the left hepatic lobe; B, Hepatic parenchymal phase of helical CT shows a solid enhanced lesion with central scar.
Mentions: Detection and characterization of the tumor is the aim of imaging in HCC. The diagnosis is suspected when the lesion shows increased arterial flow, pseudocapsule, internal septa and a mosaic appearance. Generally, HCC has hepatic arterial enhancement. During the portal and venous phases, the tumor fades off and the pseudocapsule shows bright enhancement (15). Larger HCCs are usually heterogeneous and have central necrosis with abnormal internal vessels (16). Ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI are diagnostic modalities which are used in the diagnosis and follow-up of HCC (Figure 1). The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) algorithm for diagnosis of HCC is shown in Figure 2 (16).

Bottom Line: A variety of imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine are currently used in evaluating patients with HCC.Although the best option for the treatment of these cases is hepatic resection or transplantation, only 20% of HCCs are surgically treatable.In those patients who are not eligible for surgical treatment, interventional therapies such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radio-frequency ablation (RFA), percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMC), laser ablation or cryoablation, and acetic acid injection are indicated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

ABSTRACT
The imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is challenging and plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and staging of the disease. A variety of imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine are currently used in evaluating patients with HCC. Although the best option for the treatment of these cases is hepatic resection or transplantation, only 20% of HCCs are surgically treatable. In those patients who are not eligible for surgical treatment, interventional therapies such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radio-frequency ablation (RFA), percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMC), laser ablation or cryoablation, and acetic acid injection are indicated. In this paper, we aimed to review the evidence regarding imaging modalities and therapeutic interventions of HCC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus