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Cortical signatures of dyslexia and remediation: an intrinsic functional connectivity approach.

Koyama MS, Di Martino A, Kelly C, Jutagir DR, Sunshine J, Schwartz SJ, Castellanos FX, Milham MP - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The full remediation group also exhibited stronger negative iFC between the same L.FFG seed and right medial prefrontal cortex (R.MPFC), a core region of the default network These results suggest that behavioral remediation may be associated with compensatory changes anchored in L.FFG, which reflect atypically stronger coupling between posterior visual regions (L.FFG-R.MOG) and greater functional segregation between task-positive and task-negative regions (L.FFG-R.MPFC).These findings were bolstered by significant relationships between the strength of the identified functional connections and literacy scores.We conclude that examining iFC can reveal cortical signatures of dyslexia with particular promise for monitoring neural changes associated with behavioral remediation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Rutgers University Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

ABSTRACT
This observational, cross-sectional study investigates cortical signatures of developmental dyslexia, particularly from the perspective of behavioral remediation. We employed resting-state fMRI, and compared intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) patterns of known reading regions (seeds) among three dyslexia groups characterized by (a) no remediation (current reading and spelling deficits), (b) partial remediation (only reading deficit remediated), and (c) full remediation (both reading and spelling deficits remediated), and a group of age- and IQ-matched typically developing children (TDC) (total N = 44, age range = 7-15 years). We observed significant group differences in iFC of two seeds located in the left posterior reading network - left intraparietal sulcus (L.IPS) and left fusiform gyrus (L.FFG). Specifically, iFC between L.IPS and left middle frontal gyrus was significantly weaker in all dyslexia groups, irrespective of remediation status/literacy competence, suggesting that persistent dysfunction in the fronto-parietal attention network characterizes dyslexia. Additionally, relative to both TDC and the no remediation group, the remediation groups exhibited stronger iFC between L.FFG and right middle occipital gyrus (R.MOG). The full remediation group also exhibited stronger negative iFC between the same L.FFG seed and right medial prefrontal cortex (R.MPFC), a core region of the default network These results suggest that behavioral remediation may be associated with compensatory changes anchored in L.FFG, which reflect atypically stronger coupling between posterior visual regions (L.FFG-R.MOG) and greater functional segregation between task-positive and task-negative regions (L.FFG-R.MPFC). These findings were bolstered by significant relationships between the strength of the identified functional connections and literacy scores. We conclude that examining iFC can reveal cortical signatures of dyslexia with particular promise for monitoring neural changes associated with behavioral remediation.

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Group mean and standard deviation of literacy performance.(A) WIAT = Wechsler Individual Achievement Test and (B) TOWRE = Test of Word Reading Efficiency, n = 11 for each group. SWE = Sight Word Reading Efficiency, PDE = Phonemic Decoding Efficiency, SD = Standard Deviation, Dys-N = Dyslexia with No Remediation, Dys-R = Dyslexia with Reading Remediation, Dys-RS = Dyslexia with Reading and Spelling Remediation, TDC = Typically Developing Children: -1SD represents a standard score of 85, one standard deviation below the norm.
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pone-0055454-g002: Group mean and standard deviation of literacy performance.(A) WIAT = Wechsler Individual Achievement Test and (B) TOWRE = Test of Word Reading Efficiency, n = 11 for each group. SWE = Sight Word Reading Efficiency, PDE = Phonemic Decoding Efficiency, SD = Standard Deviation, Dys-N = Dyslexia with No Remediation, Dys-R = Dyslexia with Reading Remediation, Dys-RS = Dyslexia with Reading and Spelling Remediation, TDC = Typically Developing Children: -1SD represents a standard score of 85, one standard deviation below the norm.

Mentions: Children in each of the 4 groups were group-matched on age (overall mean age = 12.2±2.3 years: range = 7.7–15.7 years), sex, estimated full-scale IQ, and handedness. The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) [56] provided full-scale IQ estimates, and all participants had full-scale IQ estimates above 85. We also administered two subtests of the Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) [57]) – Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) and Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE). Further literacy-related measures were administered to children in the dyslexia groups, including two subtests of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) [58] – Elision (a phonological awareness test) and Nonword Repetition (a phonological short-term memory test), as well as WIAT Reading Comprehension. Additionally, given the increased incidence of ADHD symptomatology in individuals with dyslexia (e.g., [59]–[60]), we asked all parents to complete the Conners Parent Rating Scales–Revised Long Version (CPRS-R-L: [61]) which addresses ADHD symptoms. Table 1 provides demographic and cognitive measures for each group, and Figure 2 illustrates their literacy profiles.


Cortical signatures of dyslexia and remediation: an intrinsic functional connectivity approach.

Koyama MS, Di Martino A, Kelly C, Jutagir DR, Sunshine J, Schwartz SJ, Castellanos FX, Milham MP - PLoS ONE (2013)

Group mean and standard deviation of literacy performance.(A) WIAT = Wechsler Individual Achievement Test and (B) TOWRE = Test of Word Reading Efficiency, n = 11 for each group. SWE = Sight Word Reading Efficiency, PDE = Phonemic Decoding Efficiency, SD = Standard Deviation, Dys-N = Dyslexia with No Remediation, Dys-R = Dyslexia with Reading Remediation, Dys-RS = Dyslexia with Reading and Spelling Remediation, TDC = Typically Developing Children: -1SD represents a standard score of 85, one standard deviation below the norm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569450&req=5

pone-0055454-g002: Group mean and standard deviation of literacy performance.(A) WIAT = Wechsler Individual Achievement Test and (B) TOWRE = Test of Word Reading Efficiency, n = 11 for each group. SWE = Sight Word Reading Efficiency, PDE = Phonemic Decoding Efficiency, SD = Standard Deviation, Dys-N = Dyslexia with No Remediation, Dys-R = Dyslexia with Reading Remediation, Dys-RS = Dyslexia with Reading and Spelling Remediation, TDC = Typically Developing Children: -1SD represents a standard score of 85, one standard deviation below the norm.
Mentions: Children in each of the 4 groups were group-matched on age (overall mean age = 12.2±2.3 years: range = 7.7–15.7 years), sex, estimated full-scale IQ, and handedness. The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) [56] provided full-scale IQ estimates, and all participants had full-scale IQ estimates above 85. We also administered two subtests of the Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) [57]) – Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) and Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE). Further literacy-related measures were administered to children in the dyslexia groups, including two subtests of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) [58] – Elision (a phonological awareness test) and Nonword Repetition (a phonological short-term memory test), as well as WIAT Reading Comprehension. Additionally, given the increased incidence of ADHD symptomatology in individuals with dyslexia (e.g., [59]–[60]), we asked all parents to complete the Conners Parent Rating Scales–Revised Long Version (CPRS-R-L: [61]) which addresses ADHD symptoms. Table 1 provides demographic and cognitive measures for each group, and Figure 2 illustrates their literacy profiles.

Bottom Line: The full remediation group also exhibited stronger negative iFC between the same L.FFG seed and right medial prefrontal cortex (R.MPFC), a core region of the default network These results suggest that behavioral remediation may be associated with compensatory changes anchored in L.FFG, which reflect atypically stronger coupling between posterior visual regions (L.FFG-R.MOG) and greater functional segregation between task-positive and task-negative regions (L.FFG-R.MPFC).These findings were bolstered by significant relationships between the strength of the identified functional connections and literacy scores.We conclude that examining iFC can reveal cortical signatures of dyslexia with particular promise for monitoring neural changes associated with behavioral remediation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Rutgers University Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

ABSTRACT
This observational, cross-sectional study investigates cortical signatures of developmental dyslexia, particularly from the perspective of behavioral remediation. We employed resting-state fMRI, and compared intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) patterns of known reading regions (seeds) among three dyslexia groups characterized by (a) no remediation (current reading and spelling deficits), (b) partial remediation (only reading deficit remediated), and (c) full remediation (both reading and spelling deficits remediated), and a group of age- and IQ-matched typically developing children (TDC) (total N = 44, age range = 7-15 years). We observed significant group differences in iFC of two seeds located in the left posterior reading network - left intraparietal sulcus (L.IPS) and left fusiform gyrus (L.FFG). Specifically, iFC between L.IPS and left middle frontal gyrus was significantly weaker in all dyslexia groups, irrespective of remediation status/literacy competence, suggesting that persistent dysfunction in the fronto-parietal attention network characterizes dyslexia. Additionally, relative to both TDC and the no remediation group, the remediation groups exhibited stronger iFC between L.FFG and right middle occipital gyrus (R.MOG). The full remediation group also exhibited stronger negative iFC between the same L.FFG seed and right medial prefrontal cortex (R.MPFC), a core region of the default network These results suggest that behavioral remediation may be associated with compensatory changes anchored in L.FFG, which reflect atypically stronger coupling between posterior visual regions (L.FFG-R.MOG) and greater functional segregation between task-positive and task-negative regions (L.FFG-R.MPFC). These findings were bolstered by significant relationships between the strength of the identified functional connections and literacy scores. We conclude that examining iFC can reveal cortical signatures of dyslexia with particular promise for monitoring neural changes associated with behavioral remediation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus