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Evolution of predator dispersal in relation to spatio-temporal prey dynamics: how not to get stuck in the wrong place!

Travis JM, Palmer SC, Coyne S, Millon A, Lambin X - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: We additionally demonstrate that the cost of dispersal can vary substantially across space and time.Perhaps as a consequence of current environmental change, many key prey species are currently exhibiting major shifts in their spatio-temporal dynamics.By exploring similar shifts in silico, we predict that predator populations will be most vulnerable when prey dynamics shift from stable to complex.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK. justin.travis@abdn.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
The eco-evolutionary dynamics of dispersal are recognised as key in determining the responses of populations to environmental changes. Here, by developing a novel modelling approach, we show that predators are likely to have evolved to emigrate more often and become more selective over their destination patch when their prey species exhibit spatio-temporally complex dynamics. We additionally demonstrate that the cost of dispersal can vary substantially across space and time. Perhaps as a consequence of current environmental change, many key prey species are currently exhibiting major shifts in their spatio-temporal dynamics. By exploring similar shifts in silico, we predict that predator populations will be most vulnerable when prey dynamics shift from stable to complex. The more sophisticated dispersal rules, and greater variance therein, that evolve under complex dynamics will enable persistence across a broader range of prey dynamics than the rules which evolve under relatively stable prey conditions.

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Within-population variability in dispersal rules depends upon spatio-temporal prey dynamics.As well as determining the mean dispersal rules, the underlying prey dynamics influence the emergent heterogeneity in dispersal rules. (A) The standard deviation in the emigration probability across a range of prey r. (B) The standard deviation in the intercept of the reaction norm that determines the stopping probability as a function of prey per predator. All parameters values are as for Fig 3. Note that where there are missing values it is due to the predator populations always going to extinction; this occurs when prey r and cstep are both high.
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pone-0054453-g004: Within-population variability in dispersal rules depends upon spatio-temporal prey dynamics.As well as determining the mean dispersal rules, the underlying prey dynamics influence the emergent heterogeneity in dispersal rules. (A) The standard deviation in the emigration probability across a range of prey r. (B) The standard deviation in the intercept of the reaction norm that determines the stopping probability as a function of prey per predator. All parameters values are as for Fig 3. Note that where there are missing values it is due to the predator populations always going to extinction; this occurs when prey r and cstep are both high.

Mentions: Under all prey conditions and in both the experiments where only emigration probability evolved and those where emigration propensity evolved jointly with the stopping rule, we found some within-population diversity in predator dispersal strategies (see insert in Fig 1 and SDs for dispersal rules across a broad range of parameter space in Fig 4). Importantly, we found that, in addition to influencing the mean dispersal rules, the underlying spatio-temporal prey dynamics exerted a strong influence on the level of heterogeneity within the population. Typically, we found greatest within-population variability in both emigration probability and in the reaction norm for the stopping rules when prey r was in the cyclic region and lowest when the dynamics were more chaotic (higher prey r). This inter-individual variability becomes important within the context of changing prey dynamics, the results of which are described next.


Evolution of predator dispersal in relation to spatio-temporal prey dynamics: how not to get stuck in the wrong place!

Travis JM, Palmer SC, Coyne S, Millon A, Lambin X - PLoS ONE (2013)

Within-population variability in dispersal rules depends upon spatio-temporal prey dynamics.As well as determining the mean dispersal rules, the underlying prey dynamics influence the emergent heterogeneity in dispersal rules. (A) The standard deviation in the emigration probability across a range of prey r. (B) The standard deviation in the intercept of the reaction norm that determines the stopping probability as a function of prey per predator. All parameters values are as for Fig 3. Note that where there are missing values it is due to the predator populations always going to extinction; this occurs when prey r and cstep are both high.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569443&req=5

pone-0054453-g004: Within-population variability in dispersal rules depends upon spatio-temporal prey dynamics.As well as determining the mean dispersal rules, the underlying prey dynamics influence the emergent heterogeneity in dispersal rules. (A) The standard deviation in the emigration probability across a range of prey r. (B) The standard deviation in the intercept of the reaction norm that determines the stopping probability as a function of prey per predator. All parameters values are as for Fig 3. Note that where there are missing values it is due to the predator populations always going to extinction; this occurs when prey r and cstep are both high.
Mentions: Under all prey conditions and in both the experiments where only emigration probability evolved and those where emigration propensity evolved jointly with the stopping rule, we found some within-population diversity in predator dispersal strategies (see insert in Fig 1 and SDs for dispersal rules across a broad range of parameter space in Fig 4). Importantly, we found that, in addition to influencing the mean dispersal rules, the underlying spatio-temporal prey dynamics exerted a strong influence on the level of heterogeneity within the population. Typically, we found greatest within-population variability in both emigration probability and in the reaction norm for the stopping rules when prey r was in the cyclic region and lowest when the dynamics were more chaotic (higher prey r). This inter-individual variability becomes important within the context of changing prey dynamics, the results of which are described next.

Bottom Line: We additionally demonstrate that the cost of dispersal can vary substantially across space and time.Perhaps as a consequence of current environmental change, many key prey species are currently exhibiting major shifts in their spatio-temporal dynamics.By exploring similar shifts in silico, we predict that predator populations will be most vulnerable when prey dynamics shift from stable to complex.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK. justin.travis@abdn.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
The eco-evolutionary dynamics of dispersal are recognised as key in determining the responses of populations to environmental changes. Here, by developing a novel modelling approach, we show that predators are likely to have evolved to emigrate more often and become more selective over their destination patch when their prey species exhibit spatio-temporally complex dynamics. We additionally demonstrate that the cost of dispersal can vary substantially across space and time. Perhaps as a consequence of current environmental change, many key prey species are currently exhibiting major shifts in their spatio-temporal dynamics. By exploring similar shifts in silico, we predict that predator populations will be most vulnerable when prey dynamics shift from stable to complex. The more sophisticated dispersal rules, and greater variance therein, that evolve under complex dynamics will enable persistence across a broader range of prey dynamics than the rules which evolve under relatively stable prey conditions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus