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A quantitative theory of human color choices.

Komarova NL, Jameson KA - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: We conclude that distance in a CIE model is but the first of several layers in a hierarchy of higher-order cognitive influences that shape color triad choices.We further discuss additional mitigating influences outside the scope of CIE modeling, which can be incorporated in this framework, including well-known influences from language, stimulus set effects, and color preference bias.We also discuss universal and cultural aspects of the model as well as non-uniformity of the color space with respect to different cultural biases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. komarova@uci.edu

ABSTRACT
The system for colorimetry adopted by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) in 1931, along with its subsequent improvements, represents a family of light mixture models that has served well for many decades for stimulus specification and reproduction when highly controlled color standards are important. Still, with regard to color appearance many perceptual and cognitive factors are known to contribute to color similarity, and, in general, to all cognitive judgments of color. Using experimentally obtained odd-one-out triad similarity judgments from 52 observers, we demonstrate that CIE-based models can explain a good portion (but not all) of the color similarity data. Color difference quantified by CIELAB ΔE explained behavior at levels of 81% (across all colors), 79% (across red colors), and 66% (across blue colors). We show that the unexplained variation cannot be ascribed to inter- or intra-individual variations among the observers, and points to the presence of additional factors shared by the majority of responders. Based on this, we create a quantitative model of a lexicographic semiorder type, which shows how different perceptual and cognitive influences can trade-off when making color similarity judgments. We show that by incorporating additional influences related to categorical and lightness and saturation factors, the model explains more of the triad similarity behavior, namely, 91% (all colors), 90% (reds), and 87% (blues). We conclude that distance in a CIE model is but the first of several layers in a hierarchy of higher-order cognitive influences that shape color triad choices. We further discuss additional mitigating influences outside the scope of CIE modeling, which can be incorporated in this framework, including well-known influences from language, stimulus set effects, and color preference bias. We also discuss universal and cultural aspects of the model as well as non-uniformity of the color space with respect to different cultural biases.

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The category (a–d) and lightness-saturation (e,f) biases in triad choices.(a–d): A triad (A,B,C) is represented as a triangle in a CIE space. In the absence of categorical and other biases, stimulus A is the most likely choice. In the presence of categorical biases, the choice might shift. Different categories are denoted by different background shades, and the most likely choice is marked by a star. (a) All stimuli belong to the same category; A remains the most likely choice. (b) All three stimuli belong to different categories; the choice remains A.(c) Stimulus A belongs to a different category than B and C; the choice remains A. (d) Stimulus C belongs to a different category from A and B; the choice might shift from A to C. (e,f): The same triad projected into the lightness-saturation space (a schematic). (e) Stimulus A is the darkest and most saturated color; the choice might shift from A to C. (f) Stimulus A is not simultaneously the darkest and most saturated color; the choice remains A
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pone-0055986-g001: The category (a–d) and lightness-saturation (e,f) biases in triad choices.(a–d): A triad (A,B,C) is represented as a triangle in a CIE space. In the absence of categorical and other biases, stimulus A is the most likely choice. In the presence of categorical biases, the choice might shift. Different categories are denoted by different background shades, and the most likely choice is marked by a star. (a) All stimuli belong to the same category; A remains the most likely choice. (b) All three stimuli belong to different categories; the choice remains A.(c) Stimulus A belongs to a different category than B and C; the choice remains A. (d) Stimulus C belongs to a different category from A and B; the choice might shift from A to C. (e,f): The same triad projected into the lightness-saturation space (a schematic). (e) Stimulus A is the darkest and most saturated color; the choice might shift from A to C. (f) Stimulus A is not simultaneously the darkest and most saturated color; the choice remains A

Mentions: Here categorical considerations are given a quantitative implementation. We propose that the probability to be chosen defined by equation (1) involves a correction factor based on category differences. Consider the example of Figure 1(a–d), where a triad is represented schematically as a triangle in a CIE space. In the absence of categorical biases, stimulus A in this triad would be the most likely choice. Next imagine there is a “partitioning” of color space that separates the stimuli into different categories. These categories are marked in Figure 1 by different background shading. If stimulus C belongs to a different category compared to the other two stimuli, there is a chance that C will become a more likely choice than A (Figure 1(d)). Mathematically, this is expressed by the formula


A quantitative theory of human color choices.

Komarova NL, Jameson KA - PLoS ONE (2013)

The category (a–d) and lightness-saturation (e,f) biases in triad choices.(a–d): A triad (A,B,C) is represented as a triangle in a CIE space. In the absence of categorical and other biases, stimulus A is the most likely choice. In the presence of categorical biases, the choice might shift. Different categories are denoted by different background shades, and the most likely choice is marked by a star. (a) All stimuli belong to the same category; A remains the most likely choice. (b) All three stimuli belong to different categories; the choice remains A.(c) Stimulus A belongs to a different category than B and C; the choice remains A. (d) Stimulus C belongs to a different category from A and B; the choice might shift from A to C. (e,f): The same triad projected into the lightness-saturation space (a schematic). (e) Stimulus A is the darkest and most saturated color; the choice might shift from A to C. (f) Stimulus A is not simultaneously the darkest and most saturated color; the choice remains A
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569434&req=5

pone-0055986-g001: The category (a–d) and lightness-saturation (e,f) biases in triad choices.(a–d): A triad (A,B,C) is represented as a triangle in a CIE space. In the absence of categorical and other biases, stimulus A is the most likely choice. In the presence of categorical biases, the choice might shift. Different categories are denoted by different background shades, and the most likely choice is marked by a star. (a) All stimuli belong to the same category; A remains the most likely choice. (b) All three stimuli belong to different categories; the choice remains A.(c) Stimulus A belongs to a different category than B and C; the choice remains A. (d) Stimulus C belongs to a different category from A and B; the choice might shift from A to C. (e,f): The same triad projected into the lightness-saturation space (a schematic). (e) Stimulus A is the darkest and most saturated color; the choice might shift from A to C. (f) Stimulus A is not simultaneously the darkest and most saturated color; the choice remains A
Mentions: Here categorical considerations are given a quantitative implementation. We propose that the probability to be chosen defined by equation (1) involves a correction factor based on category differences. Consider the example of Figure 1(a–d), where a triad is represented schematically as a triangle in a CIE space. In the absence of categorical biases, stimulus A in this triad would be the most likely choice. Next imagine there is a “partitioning” of color space that separates the stimuli into different categories. These categories are marked in Figure 1 by different background shading. If stimulus C belongs to a different category compared to the other two stimuli, there is a chance that C will become a more likely choice than A (Figure 1(d)). Mathematically, this is expressed by the formula

Bottom Line: We conclude that distance in a CIE model is but the first of several layers in a hierarchy of higher-order cognitive influences that shape color triad choices.We further discuss additional mitigating influences outside the scope of CIE modeling, which can be incorporated in this framework, including well-known influences from language, stimulus set effects, and color preference bias.We also discuss universal and cultural aspects of the model as well as non-uniformity of the color space with respect to different cultural biases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. komarova@uci.edu

ABSTRACT
The system for colorimetry adopted by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) in 1931, along with its subsequent improvements, represents a family of light mixture models that has served well for many decades for stimulus specification and reproduction when highly controlled color standards are important. Still, with regard to color appearance many perceptual and cognitive factors are known to contribute to color similarity, and, in general, to all cognitive judgments of color. Using experimentally obtained odd-one-out triad similarity judgments from 52 observers, we demonstrate that CIE-based models can explain a good portion (but not all) of the color similarity data. Color difference quantified by CIELAB ΔE explained behavior at levels of 81% (across all colors), 79% (across red colors), and 66% (across blue colors). We show that the unexplained variation cannot be ascribed to inter- or intra-individual variations among the observers, and points to the presence of additional factors shared by the majority of responders. Based on this, we create a quantitative model of a lexicographic semiorder type, which shows how different perceptual and cognitive influences can trade-off when making color similarity judgments. We show that by incorporating additional influences related to categorical and lightness and saturation factors, the model explains more of the triad similarity behavior, namely, 91% (all colors), 90% (reds), and 87% (blues). We conclude that distance in a CIE model is but the first of several layers in a hierarchy of higher-order cognitive influences that shape color triad choices. We further discuss additional mitigating influences outside the scope of CIE modeling, which can be incorporated in this framework, including well-known influences from language, stimulus set effects, and color preference bias. We also discuss universal and cultural aspects of the model as well as non-uniformity of the color space with respect to different cultural biases.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus