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Beyond face value: does involuntary emotional anticipation shape the perception of dynamic facial expressions?

Palumbo L, Jellema T - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Recently it has been shown that early stages of social perception can already be influenced by (implicit) attributions made by the observer about the agent's mental state and intentions.Neutral facial expressions displayed at the end of short video-clips, in which an initial facial expression of joy or anger gradually morphed into a neutral expression, were misjudged as being slightly angry or slightly happy, respectively (Experiment 1).Underpinning neural mechanisms are discussed in relation to the current debate on action and emotion understanding.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Emotional facial expressions are immediate indicators of the affective dispositions of others. Recently it has been shown that early stages of social perception can already be influenced by (implicit) attributions made by the observer about the agent's mental state and intentions. In the current study possible mechanisms underpinning distortions in the perception of dynamic, ecologically-valid, facial expressions were explored. In four experiments we examined to what extent basic perceptual processes such as contrast/context effects, adaptation and representational momentum underpinned the perceptual distortions, and to what extent 'emotional anticipation', i.e. the involuntary anticipation of the other's emotional state of mind on the basis of the immediate perceptual history, might have played a role. Neutral facial expressions displayed at the end of short video-clips, in which an initial facial expression of joy or anger gradually morphed into a neutral expression, were misjudged as being slightly angry or slightly happy, respectively (Experiment 1). This response bias disappeared when the actor's identity changed in the final neutral expression (Experiment 2). Videos depicting neutral-to-joy-to-neutral and neutral-to-anger-to-neutral sequences again produced biases but in opposite direction (Experiment 3). The bias survived insertion of a 400 ms blank (Experiment 4). These results suggested that the perceptual distortions were not caused by any of the low-level perceptual mechanisms (adaptation, representational momentum and contrast effects). We speculate that especially when presented with dynamic, facial expressions, perceptual distortions occur that reflect 'emotional anticipation' (a low-level mindreading mechanism), which overrules low-level visual mechanisms. Underpinning neural mechanisms are discussed in relation to the current debate on action and emotion understanding.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Illustration of the stimulus presentations in Experiment 2.Examples of the same-identity condition (top), the instant identity-change condition (middle) and the smooth identity-change condition (bottom), are given for joy-to-neutral (left side) and anger-to-neutral (right side) perceptual histories.
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pone-0056003-g003: Illustration of the stimulus presentations in Experiment 2.Examples of the same-identity condition (top), the instant identity-change condition (middle) and the smooth identity-change condition (bottom), are given for joy-to-neutral (left side) and anger-to-neutral (right side) perceptual histories.

Mentions: In the instant identity-change experiment, videos started with an actor (identity-A) displaying a 100% emotional expression (joy or anger), which morphed into a 10% expression, after which the identity changed instantaneously into identity-B (0%, neutral expression; Figure 3). Thus the identity changed from the last but one to the last frame. The entire duration of the clip was 870 ms (first frame for 300 ms, 9 interpolated frames for 30 ms each, and last frame for 300 ms; Figure 3, middle panel). The face images of identities A and B were resized to match in outer dimensions as much as possible, with the eyes presented at a fixed location on the screen, to limit the extent of geometrical shift between identities.


Beyond face value: does involuntary emotional anticipation shape the perception of dynamic facial expressions?

Palumbo L, Jellema T - PLoS ONE (2013)

Illustration of the stimulus presentations in Experiment 2.Examples of the same-identity condition (top), the instant identity-change condition (middle) and the smooth identity-change condition (bottom), are given for joy-to-neutral (left side) and anger-to-neutral (right side) perceptual histories.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569428&req=5

pone-0056003-g003: Illustration of the stimulus presentations in Experiment 2.Examples of the same-identity condition (top), the instant identity-change condition (middle) and the smooth identity-change condition (bottom), are given for joy-to-neutral (left side) and anger-to-neutral (right side) perceptual histories.
Mentions: In the instant identity-change experiment, videos started with an actor (identity-A) displaying a 100% emotional expression (joy or anger), which morphed into a 10% expression, after which the identity changed instantaneously into identity-B (0%, neutral expression; Figure 3). Thus the identity changed from the last but one to the last frame. The entire duration of the clip was 870 ms (first frame for 300 ms, 9 interpolated frames for 30 ms each, and last frame for 300 ms; Figure 3, middle panel). The face images of identities A and B were resized to match in outer dimensions as much as possible, with the eyes presented at a fixed location on the screen, to limit the extent of geometrical shift between identities.

Bottom Line: Recently it has been shown that early stages of social perception can already be influenced by (implicit) attributions made by the observer about the agent's mental state and intentions.Neutral facial expressions displayed at the end of short video-clips, in which an initial facial expression of joy or anger gradually morphed into a neutral expression, were misjudged as being slightly angry or slightly happy, respectively (Experiment 1).Underpinning neural mechanisms are discussed in relation to the current debate on action and emotion understanding.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Emotional facial expressions are immediate indicators of the affective dispositions of others. Recently it has been shown that early stages of social perception can already be influenced by (implicit) attributions made by the observer about the agent's mental state and intentions. In the current study possible mechanisms underpinning distortions in the perception of dynamic, ecologically-valid, facial expressions were explored. In four experiments we examined to what extent basic perceptual processes such as contrast/context effects, adaptation and representational momentum underpinned the perceptual distortions, and to what extent 'emotional anticipation', i.e. the involuntary anticipation of the other's emotional state of mind on the basis of the immediate perceptual history, might have played a role. Neutral facial expressions displayed at the end of short video-clips, in which an initial facial expression of joy or anger gradually morphed into a neutral expression, were misjudged as being slightly angry or slightly happy, respectively (Experiment 1). This response bias disappeared when the actor's identity changed in the final neutral expression (Experiment 2). Videos depicting neutral-to-joy-to-neutral and neutral-to-anger-to-neutral sequences again produced biases but in opposite direction (Experiment 3). The bias survived insertion of a 400 ms blank (Experiment 4). These results suggested that the perceptual distortions were not caused by any of the low-level perceptual mechanisms (adaptation, representational momentum and contrast effects). We speculate that especially when presented with dynamic, facial expressions, perceptual distortions occur that reflect 'emotional anticipation' (a low-level mindreading mechanism), which overrules low-level visual mechanisms. Underpinning neural mechanisms are discussed in relation to the current debate on action and emotion understanding.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus