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Are you being rejected or excluded? Insights from neuroimaging studies using different rejection paradigms.

Premkumar P - Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci (2012)

Bottom Line: Across the different paradigms of social rejection, there was concordance in regions for experiencing rejection, namely dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), subgenual ACC and ventral ACC.These responses were varyingly influenced by the amount of social distress during the task, social support received, self-esteem and social competence.Presenting rejection cues as scenes of people in social interaction showed high rejection sensitive or schizotypal individuals to under-activate the dorsal ACC and VLPFC, suggesting that such individuals who perceive rejection cues in others down-regulate their response to the perceived rejection by distancing themselves from the scene.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Rejection sensitivity is the heightened tendency to perceive or anxiously expect disengagement from others during social interaction. There has been a recent wave of neuroimaging studies of rejection. The aim of the current review was to determine key brain regions involved in social rejection by selectively reviewing neuroimaging studies that employed one of three paradigms of social rejection, namely social exclusion during a ball-tossing game, evaluating feedback about preference from peers and viewing scenes depicting rejection during social interaction. Across the different paradigms of social rejection, there was concordance in regions for experiencing rejection, namely dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), subgenual ACC and ventral ACC. Functional dissociation between the regions for experiencing rejection and those for emotion regulation, namely medial prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and ventral striatum, was evident in the positive association between social distress and regions for experiencing rejection and the inverse association between social distress and the emotion regulation regions. The paradigms of social exclusion and scenes depicting rejection in social interaction were more adept at evoking rejection-specific neural responses. These responses were varyingly influenced by the amount of social distress during the task, social support received, self-esteem and social competence. Presenting rejection cues as scenes of people in social interaction showed high rejection sensitive or schizotypal individuals to under-activate the dorsal ACC and VLPFC, suggesting that such individuals who perceive rejection cues in others down-regulate their response to the perceived rejection by distancing themselves from the scene.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Regions of interest activated or deactivated during the comparison of rejection task conditions across studies. The MNI, montreal neurological institute coordinates from each study were averaged (see Table 1). The slices are in the axial view and the size of the ring represents the variability around the y-axis. dACC, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; PFC, prefrontal cortex; L VLPFC, left ventrolateral PFX; PCC, posterior cingulate cortex; R VLPFC, right ventrolateral PFC; vACC, ventral anterior cingulate cortex.
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Figure 1: Regions of interest activated or deactivated during the comparison of rejection task conditions across studies. The MNI, montreal neurological institute coordinates from each study were averaged (see Table 1). The slices are in the axial view and the size of the ring represents the variability around the y-axis. dACC, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; PFC, prefrontal cortex; L VLPFC, left ventrolateral PFX; PCC, posterior cingulate cortex; R VLPFC, right ventrolateral PFC; vACC, ventral anterior cingulate cortex.

Mentions: These findings clearly reveal prime brain regions for experiencing rejection, namely dACC, subgenual ACC and vACC and brain regions for emotion regulation contingent on rejection, namely medial PFC and VLPFC and ventral striatum. Table 1 presents the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) coordinates of activation or deactivation clusters observed in each study during comparison of different rejection task conditions. Fig. 1 depicts the averaged MNI coordinates across studies on a two-dimensional space, where the size of the ring represents the relative variability between studies in the y-coordinate. The functional dissociations of these two sets of brain regions are substantiated somewhat by their positive and inverse associations respectively with social distress, rejection sensitivity, while VLPFC activation to exclusion has positive association with social support, social competence and self-esteem, although it must be acknowledged that these findings are not consistent across studies. Table 2 presents the MNI coordinates of activation or deactivation clusters that are correlated with different self-report measures. Fig. 2 depicts the averaged MNI coordinates, where the size of the ring represents the relative variability between studies in the y-coordinate.


Are you being rejected or excluded? Insights from neuroimaging studies using different rejection paradigms.

Premkumar P - Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci (2012)

Regions of interest activated or deactivated during the comparison of rejection task conditions across studies. The MNI, montreal neurological institute coordinates from each study were averaged (see Table 1). The slices are in the axial view and the size of the ring represents the variability around the y-axis. dACC, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; PFC, prefrontal cortex; L VLPFC, left ventrolateral PFX; PCC, posterior cingulate cortex; R VLPFC, right ventrolateral PFC; vACC, ventral anterior cingulate cortex.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569164&req=5

Figure 1: Regions of interest activated or deactivated during the comparison of rejection task conditions across studies. The MNI, montreal neurological institute coordinates from each study were averaged (see Table 1). The slices are in the axial view and the size of the ring represents the variability around the y-axis. dACC, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; PFC, prefrontal cortex; L VLPFC, left ventrolateral PFX; PCC, posterior cingulate cortex; R VLPFC, right ventrolateral PFC; vACC, ventral anterior cingulate cortex.
Mentions: These findings clearly reveal prime brain regions for experiencing rejection, namely dACC, subgenual ACC and vACC and brain regions for emotion regulation contingent on rejection, namely medial PFC and VLPFC and ventral striatum. Table 1 presents the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) coordinates of activation or deactivation clusters observed in each study during comparison of different rejection task conditions. Fig. 1 depicts the averaged MNI coordinates across studies on a two-dimensional space, where the size of the ring represents the relative variability between studies in the y-coordinate. The functional dissociations of these two sets of brain regions are substantiated somewhat by their positive and inverse associations respectively with social distress, rejection sensitivity, while VLPFC activation to exclusion has positive association with social support, social competence and self-esteem, although it must be acknowledged that these findings are not consistent across studies. Table 2 presents the MNI coordinates of activation or deactivation clusters that are correlated with different self-report measures. Fig. 2 depicts the averaged MNI coordinates, where the size of the ring represents the relative variability between studies in the y-coordinate.

Bottom Line: Across the different paradigms of social rejection, there was concordance in regions for experiencing rejection, namely dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), subgenual ACC and ventral ACC.These responses were varyingly influenced by the amount of social distress during the task, social support received, self-esteem and social competence.Presenting rejection cues as scenes of people in social interaction showed high rejection sensitive or schizotypal individuals to under-activate the dorsal ACC and VLPFC, suggesting that such individuals who perceive rejection cues in others down-regulate their response to the perceived rejection by distancing themselves from the scene.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Rejection sensitivity is the heightened tendency to perceive or anxiously expect disengagement from others during social interaction. There has been a recent wave of neuroimaging studies of rejection. The aim of the current review was to determine key brain regions involved in social rejection by selectively reviewing neuroimaging studies that employed one of three paradigms of social rejection, namely social exclusion during a ball-tossing game, evaluating feedback about preference from peers and viewing scenes depicting rejection during social interaction. Across the different paradigms of social rejection, there was concordance in regions for experiencing rejection, namely dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), subgenual ACC and ventral ACC. Functional dissociation between the regions for experiencing rejection and those for emotion regulation, namely medial prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and ventral striatum, was evident in the positive association between social distress and regions for experiencing rejection and the inverse association between social distress and the emotion regulation regions. The paradigms of social exclusion and scenes depicting rejection in social interaction were more adept at evoking rejection-specific neural responses. These responses were varyingly influenced by the amount of social distress during the task, social support received, self-esteem and social competence. Presenting rejection cues as scenes of people in social interaction showed high rejection sensitive or schizotypal individuals to under-activate the dorsal ACC and VLPFC, suggesting that such individuals who perceive rejection cues in others down-regulate their response to the perceived rejection by distancing themselves from the scene.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus