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Learning Difficulties and Working Memory Deficits among Primary School Students in Jakarta, Indonesia.

Wiguna T, Setyawati Wr N, Kaligis F, Belfer ML - Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci (2012)

Bottom Line: There are multiple possible etiologies for learning difficulties in children.Subjects (N=423) were recruited via proportional random sampling from 27 primary schools.Efforts should be made to identify these students and provide timely assistance, in order to optimize their educational success and mental health outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT

Objective: There are multiple possible etiologies for learning difficulties in children. There is growing evidence that many students identified as having learning difficulties have significant working memory deficits. To determine, in a sample of primary school students in Jakarta, Indonesia, the prevalence of learning difficulties and learning difficulties co-morbid with working memory deficits.

Methods: Subjects (N=423) were recruited via proportional random sampling from 27 primary schools. The first stage was a cross-sectional study of these students, while the second stage was a case-control study comparing all students with learning difficulties and working memory deficits with controls matched by school type, grade level, and gender.

Results: Among the students, whose mean age was 9.34 years (1.78), 13.7% had a learning difficulty, while 8.04% had a learning difficulty with working memory deficit. The odds ratio of comorbid working memory deficit (in the face of a learning difficulty) was 7.0 (χ(2)= 35.96, p<0.001).

Conclusion: Learning difficulties and comorbid working memory deficits were relatively common among primary school students. Efforts should be made to identify these students and provide timely assistance, in order to optimize their educational success and mental health outcomes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The pathway of the research and the odd's ratio of the working memory deficits in children with learning difficulties was 7.0 (χ2=35.96, p<0.001).
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Figure 1: The pathway of the research and the odd's ratio of the working memory deficits in children with learning difficulties was 7.0 (χ2=35.96, p<0.001).

Mentions: In the first stage study, the age range among our sample (n=423) was 5-15 years, and the mean (standard deviation) age was 9.34 (1.78). The ratio between male and female student was 6:5. Thirteen point seven percentage of children (n=58) had learning difficulty. The mean of age of students with a learning difficulty was 9.58 (1.76). Among these 58 students with learning difficulty, 34 (8.04%) had working memory deficit. The mean age of children with learning difficulties and working memory deficit was 9.76 (1.81) and the proportion of boys and girls was not any different (p=0.78) (Fig. 1, Table 1).


Learning Difficulties and Working Memory Deficits among Primary School Students in Jakarta, Indonesia.

Wiguna T, Setyawati Wr N, Kaligis F, Belfer ML - Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci (2012)

The pathway of the research and the odd's ratio of the working memory deficits in children with learning difficulties was 7.0 (χ2=35.96, p<0.001).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569149&req=5

Figure 1: The pathway of the research and the odd's ratio of the working memory deficits in children with learning difficulties was 7.0 (χ2=35.96, p<0.001).
Mentions: In the first stage study, the age range among our sample (n=423) was 5-15 years, and the mean (standard deviation) age was 9.34 (1.78). The ratio between male and female student was 6:5. Thirteen point seven percentage of children (n=58) had learning difficulty. The mean of age of students with a learning difficulty was 9.58 (1.76). Among these 58 students with learning difficulty, 34 (8.04%) had working memory deficit. The mean age of children with learning difficulties and working memory deficit was 9.76 (1.81) and the proportion of boys and girls was not any different (p=0.78) (Fig. 1, Table 1).

Bottom Line: There are multiple possible etiologies for learning difficulties in children.Subjects (N=423) were recruited via proportional random sampling from 27 primary schools.Efforts should be made to identify these students and provide timely assistance, in order to optimize their educational success and mental health outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT

Objective: There are multiple possible etiologies for learning difficulties in children. There is growing evidence that many students identified as having learning difficulties have significant working memory deficits. To determine, in a sample of primary school students in Jakarta, Indonesia, the prevalence of learning difficulties and learning difficulties co-morbid with working memory deficits.

Methods: Subjects (N=423) were recruited via proportional random sampling from 27 primary schools. The first stage was a cross-sectional study of these students, while the second stage was a case-control study comparing all students with learning difficulties and working memory deficits with controls matched by school type, grade level, and gender.

Results: Among the students, whose mean age was 9.34 years (1.78), 13.7% had a learning difficulty, while 8.04% had a learning difficulty with working memory deficit. The odds ratio of comorbid working memory deficit (in the face of a learning difficulty) was 7.0 (χ(2)= 35.96, p<0.001).

Conclusion: Learning difficulties and comorbid working memory deficits were relatively common among primary school students. Efforts should be made to identify these students and provide timely assistance, in order to optimize their educational success and mental health outcomes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus