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Formulation and cytotoxicity evaluation of new self-emulsifying multiple W/O/W nanoemulsions.

Sigward E, Mignet N, Rat P, Dutot M, Muhamed S, Guigner JM, Scherman D, Brossard D, Crauste-Manciet S - Int J Nanomedicine (2013)

Bottom Line: The multiple emulsion stability was found to increase from 24 hours to 2 and 6 months with Labrasol, glycerol, and Cremophor, respectively.The formulation including glycerol, investigated between 1 and 100 mg/mL concentration of nanoemulsion, did not affect cell viability.This last formulation would therefore be of major interest for further developments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chemical, Genetic and Imaging Pharmacology Laboratory; INSERM U1022, CNRS UMR8151, Chimie ParisTech, Faculty of Pharmacy, Paris Descartes University, Sorbone Paris Cité, Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
Three multiple water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) nanoemulsions have been designed for potential inclusion of either lipophilic or hydrophilic drugs using a two-step emulsification process exclusively based on low-energy self-emulsification. The W/O primary emulsion was constituted by a blend of oil (medium chain triglyceride), a mixture (7:3) of two surfactants, and a 10% water phase. The surfactants were a mixture of Polysorbate-85/Labrasol(®), Polysorbate-85/Cremophor(®) EL or glycerol/Polysorbate-85. The final W/O/W nanoemulsions were obtained by the addition of water, with a weight ratio nanoemulsion/water of 1:2. The multiple emulsion stability was found to increase from 24 hours to 2 and 6 months with Labrasol, glycerol, and Cremophor, respectively. Cytotoxicity was found for formulations including Labrasol and Cremophor EL. The concentration of emulsion inhibiting 50% cell viability (IC(50)) was determined using the alamarBlue(®) test, giving after 24 hours of incubation, IC(50) = 10.2 mg/mL for the Labrasol formulation and IC(50) = 11.8 mg/mL for the Cremophor EL formulation. Corresponding calculated IC(50) values for surfactants were 0.51 mg/mL for Labrasol and 0.59 mg/mL for Cremophor EL. In both cases, cytotoxicity was due to an apoptotic mechanism, evidenced by chromatin condensation and P2X7 cell death receptor activation. The formulation including glycerol, investigated between 1 and 100 mg/mL concentration of nanoemulsion, did not affect cell viability. Moreover, neither chromatin condensation nor P2X7 activation was found between the 10 and 30 mg/mL final concentration of the emulsion. This last formulation would therefore be of major interest for further developments.

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Apoptosis chromatin condensation assessment (Hoechst 33342 test) of W/O/W nanoemulsion formulations after 1- and 24-hour incubation. (A) Polysorbate-85/Labrasol®; (B) Polysorbate-85/Cremophor® EL; (C) glycerol/Polysorbate-85.Notes: Hoechst/AB ratio significantly (**P < 0.001; *P < 0.05) compared with the control without nanoemulsion. Each value represents the mean and standard deviation (n = 3).Abbreviations: AB, alamarBlue®; W/O/W, water-in-oil-in-water.
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f6-ijn-8-611: Apoptosis chromatin condensation assessment (Hoechst 33342 test) of W/O/W nanoemulsion formulations after 1- and 24-hour incubation. (A) Polysorbate-85/Labrasol®; (B) Polysorbate-85/Cremophor® EL; (C) glycerol/Polysorbate-85.Notes: Hoechst/AB ratio significantly (**P < 0.001; *P < 0.05) compared with the control without nanoemulsion. Each value represents the mean and standard deviation (n = 3).Abbreviations: AB, alamarBlue®; W/O/W, water-in-oil-in-water.

Mentions: Three concentrations of the three formulations (28.5, 20, and 10 mg/mL) were chosen for apoptosis assessment. Figure 6 shows the results of the chromatin condensation test (Hoechst 33342), and Figure 7 shows the results of the P2X7 cell death receptor activation test (YO-PRO-1 test).


Formulation and cytotoxicity evaluation of new self-emulsifying multiple W/O/W nanoemulsions.

Sigward E, Mignet N, Rat P, Dutot M, Muhamed S, Guigner JM, Scherman D, Brossard D, Crauste-Manciet S - Int J Nanomedicine (2013)

Apoptosis chromatin condensation assessment (Hoechst 33342 test) of W/O/W nanoemulsion formulations after 1- and 24-hour incubation. (A) Polysorbate-85/Labrasol®; (B) Polysorbate-85/Cremophor® EL; (C) glycerol/Polysorbate-85.Notes: Hoechst/AB ratio significantly (**P < 0.001; *P < 0.05) compared with the control without nanoemulsion. Each value represents the mean and standard deviation (n = 3).Abbreviations: AB, alamarBlue®; W/O/W, water-in-oil-in-water.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3569110&req=5

f6-ijn-8-611: Apoptosis chromatin condensation assessment (Hoechst 33342 test) of W/O/W nanoemulsion formulations after 1- and 24-hour incubation. (A) Polysorbate-85/Labrasol®; (B) Polysorbate-85/Cremophor® EL; (C) glycerol/Polysorbate-85.Notes: Hoechst/AB ratio significantly (**P < 0.001; *P < 0.05) compared with the control without nanoemulsion. Each value represents the mean and standard deviation (n = 3).Abbreviations: AB, alamarBlue®; W/O/W, water-in-oil-in-water.
Mentions: Three concentrations of the three formulations (28.5, 20, and 10 mg/mL) were chosen for apoptosis assessment. Figure 6 shows the results of the chromatin condensation test (Hoechst 33342), and Figure 7 shows the results of the P2X7 cell death receptor activation test (YO-PRO-1 test).

Bottom Line: The multiple emulsion stability was found to increase from 24 hours to 2 and 6 months with Labrasol, glycerol, and Cremophor, respectively.The formulation including glycerol, investigated between 1 and 100 mg/mL concentration of nanoemulsion, did not affect cell viability.This last formulation would therefore be of major interest for further developments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chemical, Genetic and Imaging Pharmacology Laboratory; INSERM U1022, CNRS UMR8151, Chimie ParisTech, Faculty of Pharmacy, Paris Descartes University, Sorbone Paris Cité, Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
Three multiple water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) nanoemulsions have been designed for potential inclusion of either lipophilic or hydrophilic drugs using a two-step emulsification process exclusively based on low-energy self-emulsification. The W/O primary emulsion was constituted by a blend of oil (medium chain triglyceride), a mixture (7:3) of two surfactants, and a 10% water phase. The surfactants were a mixture of Polysorbate-85/Labrasol(®), Polysorbate-85/Cremophor(®) EL or glycerol/Polysorbate-85. The final W/O/W nanoemulsions were obtained by the addition of water, with a weight ratio nanoemulsion/water of 1:2. The multiple emulsion stability was found to increase from 24 hours to 2 and 6 months with Labrasol, glycerol, and Cremophor, respectively. Cytotoxicity was found for formulations including Labrasol and Cremophor EL. The concentration of emulsion inhibiting 50% cell viability (IC(50)) was determined using the alamarBlue(®) test, giving after 24 hours of incubation, IC(50) = 10.2 mg/mL for the Labrasol formulation and IC(50) = 11.8 mg/mL for the Cremophor EL formulation. Corresponding calculated IC(50) values for surfactants were 0.51 mg/mL for Labrasol and 0.59 mg/mL for Cremophor EL. In both cases, cytotoxicity was due to an apoptotic mechanism, evidenced by chromatin condensation and P2X7 cell death receptor activation. The formulation including glycerol, investigated between 1 and 100 mg/mL concentration of nanoemulsion, did not affect cell viability. Moreover, neither chromatin condensation nor P2X7 activation was found between the 10 and 30 mg/mL final concentration of the emulsion. This last formulation would therefore be of major interest for further developments.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus