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Temporal variability of antibiotics fluxes in wastewater and contribution from hospitals.

Coutu S, Rossi L, Barry DA, Rudaz S, Vernaz N - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Source variability (i.e., antibiotic consumption, monthly data for 2006-2010) were examined in detail for nine antibiotics--azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, metronidazole, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, from which two main conclusions were reached.This seasonality in consumption resulted in seasonality in Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs).Second, the contribution of hospitals to the total load of antibiotics reaching the Lausanne Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) fluctuated markedly on a monthly time scale, but with no seasonal pattern detected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ENAC/IIE/ECOL, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland. sylvain.coutu@epfl.ch

ABSTRACT
Significant quantities of antibiotics are used in all parts of the globe to treat diseases with bacterial origins. After ingestion, antibiotics are excreted by the patient and transmitted in due course to the aquatic environment. This study examined temporal fluctuations (monthly time scale) in antibiotic sources (ambulatory sales and data from a hospital dispensary) for Lausanne, Switzerland. Source variability (i.e., antibiotic consumption, monthly data for 2006-2010) were examined in detail for nine antibiotics--azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, metronidazole, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, from which two main conclusions were reached. First, some substances--azithromycin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin--displayed high seasonality in their consumption, with the winter peak being up to three times higher than the summer minimum. This seasonality in consumption resulted in seasonality in Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs). In addition, the seasonality in PECs was also influenced by that in the base wastewater flow. Second, the contribution of hospitals to the total load of antibiotics reaching the Lausanne Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) fluctuated markedly on a monthly time scale, but with no seasonal pattern detected. That is, there was no connection between fluctuations in ambulatory and hospital consumption for the substances investigated.

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Computed monthly PEC at WTP inlet (one box per month).Each box was obtained from five monthly total sales data (total of 5 y of data available, giving 5 sets of each month). The red line locates the median of the five months considered. Upper and lower box limits correspond to the  and  percentiles, respectively. Upper and lower whiskers correspond to the last datum being within 1.5IQR of the higher and lower quartile, respectively. IQR is the interquartile range, i.e., the difference between the upper and lower quartiles.
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pone-0053592-g006: Computed monthly PEC at WTP inlet (one box per month).Each box was obtained from five monthly total sales data (total of 5 y of data available, giving 5 sets of each month). The red line locates the median of the five months considered. Upper and lower box limits correspond to the and percentiles, respectively. Upper and lower whiskers correspond to the last datum being within 1.5IQR of the higher and lower quartile, respectively. IQR is the interquartile range, i.e., the difference between the upper and lower quartiles.

Mentions: Here, PEC was calculated for WTP influent using Eq.2. Box plots of the results built from the 5-y monthly total antibiotic consumption for the Vidy Bay WTP catchment are presented in Figure 6 for the eight substances investigated. Monthly water volumes for computation of concentrations were obtained using monthly dry weather wastewater coefficients (see Figure 1).


Temporal variability of antibiotics fluxes in wastewater and contribution from hospitals.

Coutu S, Rossi L, Barry DA, Rudaz S, Vernaz N - PLoS ONE (2013)

Computed monthly PEC at WTP inlet (one box per month).Each box was obtained from five monthly total sales data (total of 5 y of data available, giving 5 sets of each month). The red line locates the median of the five months considered. Upper and lower box limits correspond to the  and  percentiles, respectively. Upper and lower whiskers correspond to the last datum being within 1.5IQR of the higher and lower quartile, respectively. IQR is the interquartile range, i.e., the difference between the upper and lower quartiles.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539968&req=5

pone-0053592-g006: Computed monthly PEC at WTP inlet (one box per month).Each box was obtained from five monthly total sales data (total of 5 y of data available, giving 5 sets of each month). The red line locates the median of the five months considered. Upper and lower box limits correspond to the and percentiles, respectively. Upper and lower whiskers correspond to the last datum being within 1.5IQR of the higher and lower quartile, respectively. IQR is the interquartile range, i.e., the difference between the upper and lower quartiles.
Mentions: Here, PEC was calculated for WTP influent using Eq.2. Box plots of the results built from the 5-y monthly total antibiotic consumption for the Vidy Bay WTP catchment are presented in Figure 6 for the eight substances investigated. Monthly water volumes for computation of concentrations were obtained using monthly dry weather wastewater coefficients (see Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Source variability (i.e., antibiotic consumption, monthly data for 2006-2010) were examined in detail for nine antibiotics--azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, metronidazole, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, from which two main conclusions were reached.This seasonality in consumption resulted in seasonality in Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs).Second, the contribution of hospitals to the total load of antibiotics reaching the Lausanne Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) fluctuated markedly on a monthly time scale, but with no seasonal pattern detected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ENAC/IIE/ECOL, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland. sylvain.coutu@epfl.ch

ABSTRACT
Significant quantities of antibiotics are used in all parts of the globe to treat diseases with bacterial origins. After ingestion, antibiotics are excreted by the patient and transmitted in due course to the aquatic environment. This study examined temporal fluctuations (monthly time scale) in antibiotic sources (ambulatory sales and data from a hospital dispensary) for Lausanne, Switzerland. Source variability (i.e., antibiotic consumption, monthly data for 2006-2010) were examined in detail for nine antibiotics--azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, metronidazole, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, from which two main conclusions were reached. First, some substances--azithromycin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin--displayed high seasonality in their consumption, with the winter peak being up to three times higher than the summer minimum. This seasonality in consumption resulted in seasonality in Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs). In addition, the seasonality in PECs was also influenced by that in the base wastewater flow. Second, the contribution of hospitals to the total load of antibiotics reaching the Lausanne Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) fluctuated markedly on a monthly time scale, but with no seasonal pattern detected. That is, there was no connection between fluctuations in ambulatory and hospital consumption for the substances investigated.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus