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Mobile air quality studies (MAQS) in inner cities: particulate matter PM10 levels related to different vehicle driving modes and integration of data into a geographical information program.

Uibel S, Scutaru C, Mueller D, Klingelhoefer D, Hoang DM, Takemura M, Fischer A, Spallek MF, Unger V, Quarcoo D, Groneberg DA - J Occup Med Toxicol (2012)

Bottom Line: Vehicle speed in itself did not influence the mean value of PM10; however, at traffic speed (10 - 50 km/h) the standard deviation was large.This system may be used to monitor individual exposure ranges and provide recommendations for preventive measurements.Although differences in PM10 levels were found under certain ventilation conditions, these differences are likely not of concern for the safety and health of passengers.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: The Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Faculty and University School of Medicine, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany. uibel@med.uni-frankfurt.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Particulate matter (PM) is assumed to exert a major burden on public health. Most studies that address levels of PM use stationary measure systems. By contrast, only few studies measure PM concentrations under mobile conditions to analyze individual exposure situations.

Methods: By combining spatial-temporal analysis with a novel vehicle-mounted sensor system, the present Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS) aimed to analyse effects of different driving conditions in a convertible vehicle. PM10 was continuously monitored in a convertible car, driven with roof open, roof closed, but windows open, or windows closed.

Results: PM10 values inside the car were nearly always higher with open roof than with roof and windows closed, whereas no difference was seen with open or closed windows. During the day PM10 values varied with high values before noon, and occasional high median values or standard deviation values due to individual factors. Vehicle speed in itself did not influence the mean value of PM10; however, at traffic speed (10 - 50 km/h) the standard deviation was large. No systematic difference was seen between PM10 values in stationary and mobile cars, nor was any PM10 difference observed between driving within or outside an environmental (low emission) zone.

Conclusions: The present study has shown the feasibility of mobile PM analysis in vehicles. Individual exposure of the occupants varies depending on factors like time of day as well as ventilation of the car; other specific factors are clearly identifiably and may relate to specific PM10 sources. This system may be used to monitor individual exposure ranges and provide recommendations for preventive measurements. Although differences in PM10 levels were found under certain ventilation conditions, these differences are likely not of concern for the safety and health of passengers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

PM 10 values within the Non-Environmental Zone in different vehicle conditions and levels of significance. Position of measurements within 15 intervals each of approximately 28 minutes between 10a.m. and 5p.m.;RO = roof open, RCWO = roof closed and window open, RCWC = roof closed and window closed. a-c: direction West to East, d-f: direction Est to West. Geographical picture by Google Earth
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Figure 3: PM 10 values within the Non-Environmental Zone in different vehicle conditions and levels of significance. Position of measurements within 15 intervals each of approximately 28 minutes between 10a.m. and 5p.m.;RO = roof open, RCWO = roof closed and window open, RCWC = roof closed and window closed. a-c: direction West to East, d-f: direction Est to West. Geographical picture by Google Earth

Mentions: Table2 summarizes the mean and standard deviation of the PM10 values in the tours. Mean PM10 values are also presented in Figures2 and3 for the different settings (non-/environmental zones, directions, car modes). In most cases, PM10 values with open roof were significantly higher than in the mode RCWC (i.e. in the environmental zone direction west to east in four of the five tours). Similar differences were seen between RO and RCWO, whereas PM10 values were not affected when the windows were open or closed.


Mobile air quality studies (MAQS) in inner cities: particulate matter PM10 levels related to different vehicle driving modes and integration of data into a geographical information program.

Uibel S, Scutaru C, Mueller D, Klingelhoefer D, Hoang DM, Takemura M, Fischer A, Spallek MF, Unger V, Quarcoo D, Groneberg DA - J Occup Med Toxicol (2012)

PM 10 values within the Non-Environmental Zone in different vehicle conditions and levels of significance. Position of measurements within 15 intervals each of approximately 28 minutes between 10a.m. and 5p.m.;RO = roof open, RCWO = roof closed and window open, RCWC = roof closed and window closed. a-c: direction West to East, d-f: direction Est to West. Geographical picture by Google Earth
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539871&req=5

Figure 3: PM 10 values within the Non-Environmental Zone in different vehicle conditions and levels of significance. Position of measurements within 15 intervals each of approximately 28 minutes between 10a.m. and 5p.m.;RO = roof open, RCWO = roof closed and window open, RCWC = roof closed and window closed. a-c: direction West to East, d-f: direction Est to West. Geographical picture by Google Earth
Mentions: Table2 summarizes the mean and standard deviation of the PM10 values in the tours. Mean PM10 values are also presented in Figures2 and3 for the different settings (non-/environmental zones, directions, car modes). In most cases, PM10 values with open roof were significantly higher than in the mode RCWC (i.e. in the environmental zone direction west to east in four of the five tours). Similar differences were seen between RO and RCWO, whereas PM10 values were not affected when the windows were open or closed.

Bottom Line: Vehicle speed in itself did not influence the mean value of PM10; however, at traffic speed (10 - 50 km/h) the standard deviation was large.This system may be used to monitor individual exposure ranges and provide recommendations for preventive measurements.Although differences in PM10 levels were found under certain ventilation conditions, these differences are likely not of concern for the safety and health of passengers.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: The Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Faculty and University School of Medicine, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany. uibel@med.uni-frankfurt.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Particulate matter (PM) is assumed to exert a major burden on public health. Most studies that address levels of PM use stationary measure systems. By contrast, only few studies measure PM concentrations under mobile conditions to analyze individual exposure situations.

Methods: By combining spatial-temporal analysis with a novel vehicle-mounted sensor system, the present Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS) aimed to analyse effects of different driving conditions in a convertible vehicle. PM10 was continuously monitored in a convertible car, driven with roof open, roof closed, but windows open, or windows closed.

Results: PM10 values inside the car were nearly always higher with open roof than with roof and windows closed, whereas no difference was seen with open or closed windows. During the day PM10 values varied with high values before noon, and occasional high median values or standard deviation values due to individual factors. Vehicle speed in itself did not influence the mean value of PM10; however, at traffic speed (10 - 50 km/h) the standard deviation was large. No systematic difference was seen between PM10 values in stationary and mobile cars, nor was any PM10 difference observed between driving within or outside an environmental (low emission) zone.

Conclusions: The present study has shown the feasibility of mobile PM analysis in vehicles. Individual exposure of the occupants varies depending on factors like time of day as well as ventilation of the car; other specific factors are clearly identifiably and may relate to specific PM10 sources. This system may be used to monitor individual exposure ranges and provide recommendations for preventive measurements. Although differences in PM10 levels were found under certain ventilation conditions, these differences are likely not of concern for the safety and health of passengers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus