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Change of water consumption and its potential influential factors in Shanghai: a cross-sectional study.

Chen H, Zhang Y, Ma L, Liu F, Zheng W, Shen Q, Zhang H, Wei X, Tian D, He G, Qu W - BMC Public Health (2012)

Bottom Line: Basic information was compared with that of a historical survey in the same place in 2001.Self-reported drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found correlated with different water choices and water hygiene treatment using chi-square test.Drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found in all types of water and improper water hygiene behaviours still existed among residents.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Different water choices affect access to drinking water with different quality. Previous studies suggested social-economic status may affect the choice of domestic drinking water. The aim of this study is to investigate whether recent social economic changes in China affect residents' drinking water choices.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to investigate residents' water consumption behaviour in 2011. Gender, age, education, personal income, housing condition, risk perception and personal preference of a certain type of water were selected as potential influential factors. Univariate and backward stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed to analyse the relation between these factors and different drinking water choices. Basic information was compared with that of a historical survey in the same place in 2001. Self-reported drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found correlated with different water choices and water hygiene treatment using chi-square test.

Results: The percentage of tap water consumption remained relatively stable and a preferred choice, with 58.99% in 2001 and 58.25% in 2011. The percentage of bottled/barrelled water consumption was 36.86% in 2001 and decreased to 25.75% in 2011. That of household filtrated water was 4.15% in 2001 and increased to 16.00% in 2011. Logistic regression model showed strong correlation between one's health belief and drinking water choices (P < 0.001). Age, personal income, education, housing condition, risk perception also played important roles (P < 0.05) in the models. Drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found in all types of water and improper water hygiene behaviours still existed among residents.

Conclusions: Personal health belief, housing condition, age, personal income, education, taste and if worm ever founded in tap water affected domestic drinking water choices in Shanghai.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Diarrhoea times among different frequency of barrelled water machine disinfection and filter replacement. Self-report diarrhoea in 2010 was compared among barrelled and filtrated water users. 41.11% of barrelled water users and 46.88% of filtrated water users reported diarrhoea in 2010. The more often the frequency of disinfection and filter replacement, the less chance and severity of self-report diarrhoea
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Figure 3: Diarrhoea times among different frequency of barrelled water machine disinfection and filter replacement. Self-report diarrhoea in 2010 was compared among barrelled and filtrated water users. 41.11% of barrelled water users and 46.88% of filtrated water users reported diarrhoea in 2010. The more often the frequency of disinfection and filter replacement, the less chance and severity of self-report diarrhoea

Mentions: Bacteria qualified rate reached 100% in finished water of water plant and pipe net water at national monitoring points for water quality [36]. Barrelled/bottled water was also tested the quality before selling. However, self-report drinking-water-related diarrhoea in 2010 existed in all kinds of water. The diarrhoea rates for filtrated, barrelled/bottled and tap water were 46.88%, 44.66%, 40.77%, respectively, though there was no statistical significance (See Table 3). It was astonishing that respondents drinking alternative water (barrelled/bottled & filtrated water) suffered more. A tendency was found that the higher the frequency for filter replacement and barrelled machine disinfection, the lower the chance and severity of diarrhoea, although without statistical significance (See Figure 3). The frequency for replacement or disinfection was usually judged by time instead of water volume. Some respondents even didn’t know when and how to replace filter or disinfect machine. They either never did so or did in an irregular base. We thought it may be the effectiveness of drinking water sanitary treatment rather than drinking water type that influence the difference of diarrhoea rate.


Change of water consumption and its potential influential factors in Shanghai: a cross-sectional study.

Chen H, Zhang Y, Ma L, Liu F, Zheng W, Shen Q, Zhang H, Wei X, Tian D, He G, Qu W - BMC Public Health (2012)

Diarrhoea times among different frequency of barrelled water machine disinfection and filter replacement. Self-report diarrhoea in 2010 was compared among barrelled and filtrated water users. 41.11% of barrelled water users and 46.88% of filtrated water users reported diarrhoea in 2010. The more often the frequency of disinfection and filter replacement, the less chance and severity of self-report diarrhoea
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539858&req=5

Figure 3: Diarrhoea times among different frequency of barrelled water machine disinfection and filter replacement. Self-report diarrhoea in 2010 was compared among barrelled and filtrated water users. 41.11% of barrelled water users and 46.88% of filtrated water users reported diarrhoea in 2010. The more often the frequency of disinfection and filter replacement, the less chance and severity of self-report diarrhoea
Mentions: Bacteria qualified rate reached 100% in finished water of water plant and pipe net water at national monitoring points for water quality [36]. Barrelled/bottled water was also tested the quality before selling. However, self-report drinking-water-related diarrhoea in 2010 existed in all kinds of water. The diarrhoea rates for filtrated, barrelled/bottled and tap water were 46.88%, 44.66%, 40.77%, respectively, though there was no statistical significance (See Table 3). It was astonishing that respondents drinking alternative water (barrelled/bottled & filtrated water) suffered more. A tendency was found that the higher the frequency for filter replacement and barrelled machine disinfection, the lower the chance and severity of diarrhoea, although without statistical significance (See Figure 3). The frequency for replacement or disinfection was usually judged by time instead of water volume. Some respondents even didn’t know when and how to replace filter or disinfect machine. They either never did so or did in an irregular base. We thought it may be the effectiveness of drinking water sanitary treatment rather than drinking water type that influence the difference of diarrhoea rate.

Bottom Line: Basic information was compared with that of a historical survey in the same place in 2001.Self-reported drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found correlated with different water choices and water hygiene treatment using chi-square test.Drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found in all types of water and improper water hygiene behaviours still existed among residents.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Different water choices affect access to drinking water with different quality. Previous studies suggested social-economic status may affect the choice of domestic drinking water. The aim of this study is to investigate whether recent social economic changes in China affect residents' drinking water choices.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to investigate residents' water consumption behaviour in 2011. Gender, age, education, personal income, housing condition, risk perception and personal preference of a certain type of water were selected as potential influential factors. Univariate and backward stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed to analyse the relation between these factors and different drinking water choices. Basic information was compared with that of a historical survey in the same place in 2001. Self-reported drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found correlated with different water choices and water hygiene treatment using chi-square test.

Results: The percentage of tap water consumption remained relatively stable and a preferred choice, with 58.99% in 2001 and 58.25% in 2011. The percentage of bottled/barrelled water consumption was 36.86% in 2001 and decreased to 25.75% in 2011. That of household filtrated water was 4.15% in 2001 and increased to 16.00% in 2011. Logistic regression model showed strong correlation between one's health belief and drinking water choices (P < 0.001). Age, personal income, education, housing condition, risk perception also played important roles (P < 0.05) in the models. Drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found in all types of water and improper water hygiene behaviours still existed among residents.

Conclusions: Personal health belief, housing condition, age, personal income, education, taste and if worm ever founded in tap water affected domestic drinking water choices in Shanghai.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus