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Germ cell development in the postnatal testis: the key to prevent malignancy in cryptorchidism?

Hutson JM, Li R, Southwell BR, Petersen BL, Thorup J, Cortes D - Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) (2013)

Bottom Line: Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer.Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes.In addition, it is thought the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Royal Children's Hospital Parkville, VIC, Australia.

ABSTRACT
To permit normal postnatal germ cell development, the mammalian testis undergoes a complex, multi-staged process of descent to the scrotum. Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer. Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes. In addition, it is thought the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty. The biology of postnatal germ cell development is of intense interest, as it is likely to be the key to the optimal timing for orchidopexy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Abnormal persistence of gonocytes beyond 6 months of age in a boy with cryptorchidism. The germ cells are labeled with MVH (mouse homolog of Drosophila Vasa), and the Sertoli cells are labeled with MIS/AMH (bar = 10 μm).
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Figure 6: Abnormal persistence of gonocytes beyond 6 months of age in a boy with cryptorchidism. The germ cells are labeled with MVH (mouse homolog of Drosophila Vasa), and the Sertoli cells are labeled with MIS/AMH (bar = 10 μm).

Mentions: All cryptorchid testes of newborns contain germ cells, although in some testes the number is impaired compared to normal. So significant deranged germ cell development in cryptorchid testes probably begins postnatally, except in the dysgenetic testis in disorders of sex development (DSD). The first step to fail is transformation of gonocytes into type-A spermatogonia, which is delayed or interrupted. Evidence for this disruption is found in the persistence of large numbers of gonocytes in the center of the testicular cords well beyond 6 months of age (Figure 6), and a decreased number of type-A spermatogonia (Hadziselimovic et al., 1986; Huff et al., 1989, 1991). After the first year or so the number of spermatogonia decrease, while those that remain are gonocytes with bizarre nuclei (Hadziselimovic, 1983). By 3–4 years of age the abnormality has become even more obvious, with failure of primary spermatocytes to appear (Huff et al., 1989).


Germ cell development in the postnatal testis: the key to prevent malignancy in cryptorchidism?

Hutson JM, Li R, Southwell BR, Petersen BL, Thorup J, Cortes D - Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) (2013)

Abnormal persistence of gonocytes beyond 6 months of age in a boy with cryptorchidism. The germ cells are labeled with MVH (mouse homolog of Drosophila Vasa), and the Sertoli cells are labeled with MIS/AMH (bar = 10 μm).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539691&req=5

Figure 6: Abnormal persistence of gonocytes beyond 6 months of age in a boy with cryptorchidism. The germ cells are labeled with MVH (mouse homolog of Drosophila Vasa), and the Sertoli cells are labeled with MIS/AMH (bar = 10 μm).
Mentions: All cryptorchid testes of newborns contain germ cells, although in some testes the number is impaired compared to normal. So significant deranged germ cell development in cryptorchid testes probably begins postnatally, except in the dysgenetic testis in disorders of sex development (DSD). The first step to fail is transformation of gonocytes into type-A spermatogonia, which is delayed or interrupted. Evidence for this disruption is found in the persistence of large numbers of gonocytes in the center of the testicular cords well beyond 6 months of age (Figure 6), and a decreased number of type-A spermatogonia (Hadziselimovic et al., 1986; Huff et al., 1989, 1991). After the first year or so the number of spermatogonia decrease, while those that remain are gonocytes with bizarre nuclei (Hadziselimovic, 1983). By 3–4 years of age the abnormality has become even more obvious, with failure of primary spermatocytes to appear (Huff et al., 1989).

Bottom Line: Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer.Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes.In addition, it is thought the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Royal Children's Hospital Parkville, VIC, Australia.

ABSTRACT
To permit normal postnatal germ cell development, the mammalian testis undergoes a complex, multi-staged process of descent to the scrotum. Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer. Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes. In addition, it is thought the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty. The biology of postnatal germ cell development is of intense interest, as it is likely to be the key to the optimal timing for orchidopexy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus