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Germ cell development in the postnatal testis: the key to prevent malignancy in cryptorchidism?

Hutson JM, Li R, Southwell BR, Petersen BL, Thorup J, Cortes D - Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) (2013)

Bottom Line: Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer.Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes.In addition, it is thought the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Royal Children's Hospital Parkville, VIC, Australia.

ABSTRACT
To permit normal postnatal germ cell development, the mammalian testis undergoes a complex, multi-staged process of descent to the scrotum. Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer. Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes. In addition, it is thought the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty. The biology of postnatal germ cell development is of intense interest, as it is likely to be the key to the optimal timing for orchidopexy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Germ cell development in the first week postnatally in the rat, showing the germ cells labeled with MVH (mouse homolog of Drosophila Vasa), and the Sertoli cells labeled with MIS/AMH (bar = 10 μm). (A) Day 0, (B) Day 4, (C) Day 6, (D) Day 10.
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Figure 5: Germ cell development in the first week postnatally in the rat, showing the germ cells labeled with MVH (mouse homolog of Drosophila Vasa), and the Sertoli cells labeled with MIS/AMH (bar = 10 μm). (A) Day 0, (B) Day 4, (C) Day 6, (D) Day 10.

Mentions: The type-A spermatogonia and SSCs have been shown recently to express a range of different markers (Figure 5). Undifferentiated SSCs express the integrins β-1 and α-6 (Shinohara et al., 1999), and the receptors for glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), such as GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRα-1) and receptor tyrosine kinase (RET) (de Rooij and Russell, 2000). In addition undifferentiated SSCs express Zbtb-16 (previously known as Plzf; Buaas et al., 2004; Costoya et al., 2004). Once SSCs start to differentiate, they begin expressing a range of different markers, including c-Kit, the receptor for stem cell factor (Besmer et al., 1993; Yoshida et al., 2006). They also express Sohlh1 and Sohlh2, as well as neurogenin 3 (Ballow et al., 2006; Filipponi et al., 2007; Hao et al., 2008). As can be seen from this brief overview, most of what we know about SSCs comes from studies of adult spermatogenesis or stem cell research, rather than a direct study of the type-A spermatogonium in the postnatal testis.


Germ cell development in the postnatal testis: the key to prevent malignancy in cryptorchidism?

Hutson JM, Li R, Southwell BR, Petersen BL, Thorup J, Cortes D - Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) (2013)

Germ cell development in the first week postnatally in the rat, showing the germ cells labeled with MVH (mouse homolog of Drosophila Vasa), and the Sertoli cells labeled with MIS/AMH (bar = 10 μm). (A) Day 0, (B) Day 4, (C) Day 6, (D) Day 10.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539691&req=5

Figure 5: Germ cell development in the first week postnatally in the rat, showing the germ cells labeled with MVH (mouse homolog of Drosophila Vasa), and the Sertoli cells labeled with MIS/AMH (bar = 10 μm). (A) Day 0, (B) Day 4, (C) Day 6, (D) Day 10.
Mentions: The type-A spermatogonia and SSCs have been shown recently to express a range of different markers (Figure 5). Undifferentiated SSCs express the integrins β-1 and α-6 (Shinohara et al., 1999), and the receptors for glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), such as GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRα-1) and receptor tyrosine kinase (RET) (de Rooij and Russell, 2000). In addition undifferentiated SSCs express Zbtb-16 (previously known as Plzf; Buaas et al., 2004; Costoya et al., 2004). Once SSCs start to differentiate, they begin expressing a range of different markers, including c-Kit, the receptor for stem cell factor (Besmer et al., 1993; Yoshida et al., 2006). They also express Sohlh1 and Sohlh2, as well as neurogenin 3 (Ballow et al., 2006; Filipponi et al., 2007; Hao et al., 2008). As can be seen from this brief overview, most of what we know about SSCs comes from studies of adult spermatogenesis or stem cell research, rather than a direct study of the type-A spermatogonium in the postnatal testis.

Bottom Line: Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer.Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes.In addition, it is thought the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Royal Children's Hospital Parkville, VIC, Australia.

ABSTRACT
To permit normal postnatal germ cell development, the mammalian testis undergoes a complex, multi-staged process of descent to the scrotum. Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer. Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes. In addition, it is thought the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty. The biology of postnatal germ cell development is of intense interest, as it is likely to be the key to the optimal timing for orchidopexy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus