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Germ cell development in the postnatal testis: the key to prevent malignancy in cryptorchidism?

Hutson JM, Li R, Southwell BR, Petersen BL, Thorup J, Cortes D - Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) (2013)

Bottom Line: Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer.Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes.In addition, it is thought the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Royal Children's Hospital Parkville, VIC, Australia.

ABSTRACT
To permit normal postnatal germ cell development, the mammalian testis undergoes a complex, multi-staged process of descent to the scrotum. Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer. Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes. In addition, it is thought the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty. The biology of postnatal germ cell development is of intense interest, as it is likely to be the key to the optimal timing for orchidopexy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The age at which orchidopexy has been advocated since the 1950s. Reproduced with modifications from Hutson and Beasley (1992).
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Figure 3: The age at which orchidopexy has been advocated since the 1950s. Reproduced with modifications from Hutson and Beasley (1992).

Mentions: Meanwhile, in pediatrics, it first became apparent in the 1970s that degeneration of the UDT was occurring in early childhood (Mengel et al., 1974). Initially it was noted that there was macroscopic atrophy of the testis in early primary school years leading to the view that maybe orchidopexy should be done in 5- to 6-year-old boys rather than at 10–15 years, based on the assumption that this might prevent the obviously visible development of atrophy. During the 1970s and early 1980s there was histological evidence accumulating of degeneration visible in boys of 2 years of age with UDT, leading to the recommendation in pediatric surgery that orchidopexy might be optimally done in 2-year-old boys (Hadziselimovic et al., 1975). It was then appreciated that there were signs of early degeneration in the testis on electron microscopy at about 12 months of age (Hadziselimovic, 1985; Figure 3).


Germ cell development in the postnatal testis: the key to prevent malignancy in cryptorchidism?

Hutson JM, Li R, Southwell BR, Petersen BL, Thorup J, Cortes D - Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) (2013)

The age at which orchidopexy has been advocated since the 1950s. Reproduced with modifications from Hutson and Beasley (1992).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539691&req=5

Figure 3: The age at which orchidopexy has been advocated since the 1950s. Reproduced with modifications from Hutson and Beasley (1992).
Mentions: Meanwhile, in pediatrics, it first became apparent in the 1970s that degeneration of the UDT was occurring in early childhood (Mengel et al., 1974). Initially it was noted that there was macroscopic atrophy of the testis in early primary school years leading to the view that maybe orchidopexy should be done in 5- to 6-year-old boys rather than at 10–15 years, based on the assumption that this might prevent the obviously visible development of atrophy. During the 1970s and early 1980s there was histological evidence accumulating of degeneration visible in boys of 2 years of age with UDT, leading to the recommendation in pediatric surgery that orchidopexy might be optimally done in 2-year-old boys (Hadziselimovic et al., 1975). It was then appreciated that there were signs of early degeneration in the testis on electron microscopy at about 12 months of age (Hadziselimovic, 1985; Figure 3).

Bottom Line: Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer.Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes.In addition, it is thought the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Royal Children's Hospital Parkville, VIC, Australia.

ABSTRACT
To permit normal postnatal germ cell development, the mammalian testis undergoes a complex, multi-staged process of descent to the scrotum. Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer. Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes. In addition, it is thought the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty. The biology of postnatal germ cell development is of intense interest, as it is likely to be the key to the optimal timing for orchidopexy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus