Limits...
Molecular signaling along the anterior-posterior axis of early palate development.

Smith TM, Lozanoff S, Iyyanar PP, Nazarali AJ - Front Physiol (2013)

Bottom Line: In mammals, the palatal tissue can be distinguished into anterior bony hard palate and posterior muscular soft palate that have specialized functions in occlusion, speech or swallowing.Numerous transcription factors and signaling pathways are now recognized as either anterior- (e.g., Msx1, Bmp4, Bmp2, Shh, Spry2, Fgf10, Fgf7, and Shox2) or posterior-specific (e.g., Meox2, Tbx22, and Barx1).We hypothesize that the anterior palate acts as a signaling center in setting up development of the secondary palate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Cleft palate is a common congenital birth defect in humans. In mammals, the palatal tissue can be distinguished into anterior bony hard palate and posterior muscular soft palate that have specialized functions in occlusion, speech or swallowing. Regulation of palate development appears to be the result of distinct signaling and genetic networks in the anterior and posterior regions of the palate. Development and maintenance of expression of these region-specific genes is crucial for normal palate development. Numerous transcription factors and signaling pathways are now recognized as either anterior- (e.g., Msx1, Bmp4, Bmp2, Shh, Spry2, Fgf10, Fgf7, and Shox2) or posterior-specific (e.g., Meox2, Tbx22, and Barx1). Localized expression and function clearly highlight the importance of regional patterning and differentiation within the palate at the molecular level. Here, we review how these molecular pathways and networks regulate the anterior-posterior patterning and development of secondary palate. We hypothesize that the anterior palate acts as a signaling center in setting up development of the secondary palate.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of the key regulators in the posterior palate. Barx1 and Tbx22 induce cell proliferation in the posterior palate. Hoxa2 also controls the expression of Barx1 in the early stage of palatogenesis. Mn1 positively regulates Tbx22 and represents the first network determined to specifically regulate the level of proliferation in the posterior palate. Meox2 plays role in fusion of the posterior palate.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539680&req=5

Figure 3: Schematic representation of the key regulators in the posterior palate. Barx1 and Tbx22 induce cell proliferation in the posterior palate. Hoxa2 also controls the expression of Barx1 in the early stage of palatogenesis. Mn1 positively regulates Tbx22 and represents the first network determined to specifically regulate the level of proliferation in the posterior palate. Meox2 plays role in fusion of the posterior palate.

Mentions: Although many genes important in palate development have regional specific expression and are expressed predominantly in the anterior palate, several genes are also important in the posterior region (Figure 3).


Molecular signaling along the anterior-posterior axis of early palate development.

Smith TM, Lozanoff S, Iyyanar PP, Nazarali AJ - Front Physiol (2013)

Schematic representation of the key regulators in the posterior palate. Barx1 and Tbx22 induce cell proliferation in the posterior palate. Hoxa2 also controls the expression of Barx1 in the early stage of palatogenesis. Mn1 positively regulates Tbx22 and represents the first network determined to specifically regulate the level of proliferation in the posterior palate. Meox2 plays role in fusion of the posterior palate.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539680&req=5

Figure 3: Schematic representation of the key regulators in the posterior palate. Barx1 and Tbx22 induce cell proliferation in the posterior palate. Hoxa2 also controls the expression of Barx1 in the early stage of palatogenesis. Mn1 positively regulates Tbx22 and represents the first network determined to specifically regulate the level of proliferation in the posterior palate. Meox2 plays role in fusion of the posterior palate.
Mentions: Although many genes important in palate development have regional specific expression and are expressed predominantly in the anterior palate, several genes are also important in the posterior region (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: In mammals, the palatal tissue can be distinguished into anterior bony hard palate and posterior muscular soft palate that have specialized functions in occlusion, speech or swallowing.Numerous transcription factors and signaling pathways are now recognized as either anterior- (e.g., Msx1, Bmp4, Bmp2, Shh, Spry2, Fgf10, Fgf7, and Shox2) or posterior-specific (e.g., Meox2, Tbx22, and Barx1).We hypothesize that the anterior palate acts as a signaling center in setting up development of the secondary palate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Cleft palate is a common congenital birth defect in humans. In mammals, the palatal tissue can be distinguished into anterior bony hard palate and posterior muscular soft palate that have specialized functions in occlusion, speech or swallowing. Regulation of palate development appears to be the result of distinct signaling and genetic networks in the anterior and posterior regions of the palate. Development and maintenance of expression of these region-specific genes is crucial for normal palate development. Numerous transcription factors and signaling pathways are now recognized as either anterior- (e.g., Msx1, Bmp4, Bmp2, Shh, Spry2, Fgf10, Fgf7, and Shox2) or posterior-specific (e.g., Meox2, Tbx22, and Barx1). Localized expression and function clearly highlight the importance of regional patterning and differentiation within the palate at the molecular level. Here, we review how these molecular pathways and networks regulate the anterior-posterior patterning and development of secondary palate. We hypothesize that the anterior palate acts as a signaling center in setting up development of the secondary palate.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus