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Grape skin extract reduced pulmonary oxidative response in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

Pires KM, Valença SS, Resende ÂC, Porto LC, Queiroz EF, Moreira DD, de Moura RS - Med. Sci. Monit. (2011)

Bottom Line: In addition, we used a separate group treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO inhibitor) to confirm nitric oxide (NO) involvement in GSE effects.This is associated with decreased MMP-9 activity, decreased number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of lipid peroxidation.Our results indicate that beneficial effects of GSE are NO-dependent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Cancer Laboratory - ICB/CCS/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cigarette smoke (CS) is known to be one of the major sources of oxidants in the lungs. We postulated that acute administration of GSE (grape skin extract) would either reduce or protect the ALI (acute lung inflammation) produced by CS via NO release.

Material/methods: We adopted a nutritional approach by investigating the inflammatory cells, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity, and oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase - SOD; catalase - CAT; glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and malondialdehyde - MDA - levels) that play a role in the development of acute lung inflammation (ALI). Therefore, we tested an orally active antioxidant produced from grape skin manipulation (grape skin extract - GSE), in mice exposed to CS from 6 cigarettes a day for 5 days. In addition, we used a separate group treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO inhibitor) to confirm nitric oxide (NO) involvement in GSE effects.

Results: We showed for the first time that administration of GSE inhibited ALI and oxidative damage induced by CS. This is associated with decreased MMP-9 activity, decreased number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that beneficial effects of GSE are NO-dependent.

Conclusions: The study indicates that alteration of the oxidant-antioxidant balance is important in the pathogenesis of CS-induced ALI and suggests lung protective effects of GSE treatment in the mouse.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Gelatin zymography of MMP-9 activity in lung homogenates from all experimental groups (A). Representative bands of MMP-9 activity are shown for each group (B). CS group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days; CS+GSE group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day); CS+GSE+L-NAME group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day) plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 mg/kg/day).
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f8-medscimonit-17-8-br187: Gelatin zymography of MMP-9 activity in lung homogenates from all experimental groups (A). Representative bands of MMP-9 activity are shown for each group (B). CS group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days; CS+GSE group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day); CS+GSE+L-NAME group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day) plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 mg/kg/day).

Mentions: MMP-9 activity increased after CS exposure (Figure 8A). Densitometric analyses of MMP-9 bands showed increases activity of this enzyme after CS exposure (Figure 8B). The CS+GSE group showed a decrease in MMP-9 activity in lung homogenates; however, concomitant GSE and L-NAME administration during CS resulted in MMP-9 activity densitometry similar to the CS group.


Grape skin extract reduced pulmonary oxidative response in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

Pires KM, Valença SS, Resende ÂC, Porto LC, Queiroz EF, Moreira DD, de Moura RS - Med. Sci. Monit. (2011)

Gelatin zymography of MMP-9 activity in lung homogenates from all experimental groups (A). Representative bands of MMP-9 activity are shown for each group (B). CS group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days; CS+GSE group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day); CS+GSE+L-NAME group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day) plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 mg/kg/day).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539621&req=5

f8-medscimonit-17-8-br187: Gelatin zymography of MMP-9 activity in lung homogenates from all experimental groups (A). Representative bands of MMP-9 activity are shown for each group (B). CS group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days; CS+GSE group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day); CS+GSE+L-NAME group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day) plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 mg/kg/day).
Mentions: MMP-9 activity increased after CS exposure (Figure 8A). Densitometric analyses of MMP-9 bands showed increases activity of this enzyme after CS exposure (Figure 8B). The CS+GSE group showed a decrease in MMP-9 activity in lung homogenates; however, concomitant GSE and L-NAME administration during CS resulted in MMP-9 activity densitometry similar to the CS group.

Bottom Line: In addition, we used a separate group treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO inhibitor) to confirm nitric oxide (NO) involvement in GSE effects.This is associated with decreased MMP-9 activity, decreased number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of lipid peroxidation.Our results indicate that beneficial effects of GSE are NO-dependent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Cancer Laboratory - ICB/CCS/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cigarette smoke (CS) is known to be one of the major sources of oxidants in the lungs. We postulated that acute administration of GSE (grape skin extract) would either reduce or protect the ALI (acute lung inflammation) produced by CS via NO release.

Material/methods: We adopted a nutritional approach by investigating the inflammatory cells, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity, and oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase - SOD; catalase - CAT; glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and malondialdehyde - MDA - levels) that play a role in the development of acute lung inflammation (ALI). Therefore, we tested an orally active antioxidant produced from grape skin manipulation (grape skin extract - GSE), in mice exposed to CS from 6 cigarettes a day for 5 days. In addition, we used a separate group treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO inhibitor) to confirm nitric oxide (NO) involvement in GSE effects.

Results: We showed for the first time that administration of GSE inhibited ALI and oxidative damage induced by CS. This is associated with decreased MMP-9 activity, decreased number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that beneficial effects of GSE are NO-dependent.

Conclusions: The study indicates that alteration of the oxidant-antioxidant balance is important in the pathogenesis of CS-induced ALI and suggests lung protective effects of GSE treatment in the mouse.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus