Limits...
Grape skin extract reduced pulmonary oxidative response in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

Pires KM, Valença SS, Resende ÂC, Porto LC, Queiroz EF, Moreira DD, de Moura RS - Med. Sci. Monit. (2011)

Bottom Line: In addition, we used a separate group treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO inhibitor) to confirm nitric oxide (NO) involvement in GSE effects.This is associated with decreased MMP-9 activity, decreased number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of lipid peroxidation.Our results indicate that beneficial effects of GSE are NO-dependent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Cancer Laboratory - ICB/CCS/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cigarette smoke (CS) is known to be one of the major sources of oxidants in the lungs. We postulated that acute administration of GSE (grape skin extract) would either reduce or protect the ALI (acute lung inflammation) produced by CS via NO release.

Material/methods: We adopted a nutritional approach by investigating the inflammatory cells, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity, and oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase - SOD; catalase - CAT; glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and malondialdehyde - MDA - levels) that play a role in the development of acute lung inflammation (ALI). Therefore, we tested an orally active antioxidant produced from grape skin manipulation (grape skin extract - GSE), in mice exposed to CS from 6 cigarettes a day for 5 days. In addition, we used a separate group treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO inhibitor) to confirm nitric oxide (NO) involvement in GSE effects.

Results: We showed for the first time that administration of GSE inhibited ALI and oxidative damage induced by CS. This is associated with decreased MMP-9 activity, decreased number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that beneficial effects of GSE are NO-dependent.

Conclusions: The study indicates that alteration of the oxidant-antioxidant balance is important in the pathogenesis of CS-induced ALI and suggests lung protective effects of GSE treatment in the mouse.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Malondialdehyde (MDA) leves in lung homogenates from all experimental groups. (A) shows data from cigarette smoke-exposed animals plus treatment; (B) shows ambient air-exposed animals plus treatment. Control group: animals exposed to ambient air; CS group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days; CS+GSE group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day); CS+GSE+L-NAME group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (150 mg/kg/day) plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 mg/kg/day); GSE group: animals exposed to ambient air and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day); L-NAME group: animals exposed to ambient air and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day) plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 mg/kg/day); Data are mean values (n 4–6) with their standard errors represented by vertical bars. One-way ANOVA was performed followed by the Tukey post-test was used for statistical analysis. (a) Mean value was significantly different from that of the Control group. (b) Mean value was significantly different from that of the CS group. (c) Mean value was significantly different from that CS+GSE group. (*) Mean value was significantly different from that of the Control group; (#) Mean value was significantly different from that of the GSE group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539621&req=5

f7-medscimonit-17-8-br187: Malondialdehyde (MDA) leves in lung homogenates from all experimental groups. (A) shows data from cigarette smoke-exposed animals plus treatment; (B) shows ambient air-exposed animals plus treatment. Control group: animals exposed to ambient air; CS group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days; CS+GSE group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day); CS+GSE+L-NAME group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (150 mg/kg/day) plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 mg/kg/day); GSE group: animals exposed to ambient air and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day); L-NAME group: animals exposed to ambient air and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day) plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 mg/kg/day); Data are mean values (n 4–6) with their standard errors represented by vertical bars. One-way ANOVA was performed followed by the Tukey post-test was used for statistical analysis. (a) Mean value was significantly different from that of the Control group. (b) Mean value was significantly different from that of the CS group. (c) Mean value was significantly different from that CS+GSE group. (*) Mean value was significantly different from that of the Control group; (#) Mean value was significantly different from that of the GSE group.

Mentions: MDA levels were significantly increased (130%, p<0.01) in the CS group when compared to the control group (Figure 7A). GSE administration resulted in MDA levels comparable to the control group; however, the CS+GSE+L-NAME group showed a significant increase in MDA levels (110%, p<0.01) when compared to the CS+GSE group. A separate group of C57BL/6 mice was exposed to ambient air for 5 consecutive days and treated with vehicle, GSE, or L-NAME There was no alteration in MDA in mice treated either with GSE or L-NAME and exposed to ambient air (Figure 7B).


Grape skin extract reduced pulmonary oxidative response in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

Pires KM, Valença SS, Resende ÂC, Porto LC, Queiroz EF, Moreira DD, de Moura RS - Med. Sci. Monit. (2011)

Malondialdehyde (MDA) leves in lung homogenates from all experimental groups. (A) shows data from cigarette smoke-exposed animals plus treatment; (B) shows ambient air-exposed animals plus treatment. Control group: animals exposed to ambient air; CS group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days; CS+GSE group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day); CS+GSE+L-NAME group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (150 mg/kg/day) plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 mg/kg/day); GSE group: animals exposed to ambient air and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day); L-NAME group: animals exposed to ambient air and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day) plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 mg/kg/day); Data are mean values (n 4–6) with their standard errors represented by vertical bars. One-way ANOVA was performed followed by the Tukey post-test was used for statistical analysis. (a) Mean value was significantly different from that of the Control group. (b) Mean value was significantly different from that of the CS group. (c) Mean value was significantly different from that CS+GSE group. (*) Mean value was significantly different from that of the Control group; (#) Mean value was significantly different from that of the GSE group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539621&req=5

f7-medscimonit-17-8-br187: Malondialdehyde (MDA) leves in lung homogenates from all experimental groups. (A) shows data from cigarette smoke-exposed animals plus treatment; (B) shows ambient air-exposed animals plus treatment. Control group: animals exposed to ambient air; CS group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days; CS+GSE group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day); CS+GSE+L-NAME group: animals exposed to 6 commercial filtered cigarettes per day for 5 consecutive days and treated with grape skin extract (150 mg/kg/day) plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 mg/kg/day); GSE group: animals exposed to ambient air and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day); L-NAME group: animals exposed to ambient air and treated with grape skin extract (200 mg/kg/day) plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 mg/kg/day); Data are mean values (n 4–6) with their standard errors represented by vertical bars. One-way ANOVA was performed followed by the Tukey post-test was used for statistical analysis. (a) Mean value was significantly different from that of the Control group. (b) Mean value was significantly different from that of the CS group. (c) Mean value was significantly different from that CS+GSE group. (*) Mean value was significantly different from that of the Control group; (#) Mean value was significantly different from that of the GSE group.
Mentions: MDA levels were significantly increased (130%, p<0.01) in the CS group when compared to the control group (Figure 7A). GSE administration resulted in MDA levels comparable to the control group; however, the CS+GSE+L-NAME group showed a significant increase in MDA levels (110%, p<0.01) when compared to the CS+GSE group. A separate group of C57BL/6 mice was exposed to ambient air for 5 consecutive days and treated with vehicle, GSE, or L-NAME There was no alteration in MDA in mice treated either with GSE or L-NAME and exposed to ambient air (Figure 7B).

Bottom Line: In addition, we used a separate group treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO inhibitor) to confirm nitric oxide (NO) involvement in GSE effects.This is associated with decreased MMP-9 activity, decreased number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of lipid peroxidation.Our results indicate that beneficial effects of GSE are NO-dependent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Cancer Laboratory - ICB/CCS/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cigarette smoke (CS) is known to be one of the major sources of oxidants in the lungs. We postulated that acute administration of GSE (grape skin extract) would either reduce or protect the ALI (acute lung inflammation) produced by CS via NO release.

Material/methods: We adopted a nutritional approach by investigating the inflammatory cells, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity, and oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase - SOD; catalase - CAT; glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and malondialdehyde - MDA - levels) that play a role in the development of acute lung inflammation (ALI). Therefore, we tested an orally active antioxidant produced from grape skin manipulation (grape skin extract - GSE), in mice exposed to CS from 6 cigarettes a day for 5 days. In addition, we used a separate group treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO inhibitor) to confirm nitric oxide (NO) involvement in GSE effects.

Results: We showed for the first time that administration of GSE inhibited ALI and oxidative damage induced by CS. This is associated with decreased MMP-9 activity, decreased number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that beneficial effects of GSE are NO-dependent.

Conclusions: The study indicates that alteration of the oxidant-antioxidant balance is important in the pathogenesis of CS-induced ALI and suggests lung protective effects of GSE treatment in the mouse.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus