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Grape skin extract reduced pulmonary oxidative response in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

Pires KM, Valença SS, Resende ÂC, Porto LC, Queiroz EF, Moreira DD, de Moura RS - Med. Sci. Monit. (2011)

Bottom Line: In addition, we used a separate group treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO inhibitor) to confirm nitric oxide (NO) involvement in GSE effects.This is associated with decreased MMP-9 activity, decreased number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of lipid peroxidation.Our results indicate that beneficial effects of GSE are NO-dependent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Cancer Laboratory - ICB/CCS/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cigarette smoke (CS) is known to be one of the major sources of oxidants in the lungs. We postulated that acute administration of GSE (grape skin extract) would either reduce or protect the ALI (acute lung inflammation) produced by CS via NO release.

Material/methods: We adopted a nutritional approach by investigating the inflammatory cells, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity, and oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase - SOD; catalase - CAT; glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and malondialdehyde - MDA - levels) that play a role in the development of acute lung inflammation (ALI). Therefore, we tested an orally active antioxidant produced from grape skin manipulation (grape skin extract - GSE), in mice exposed to CS from 6 cigarettes a day for 5 days. In addition, we used a separate group treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO inhibitor) to confirm nitric oxide (NO) involvement in GSE effects.

Results: We showed for the first time that administration of GSE inhibited ALI and oxidative damage induced by CS. This is associated with decreased MMP-9 activity, decreased number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that beneficial effects of GSE are NO-dependent.

Conclusions: The study indicates that alteration of the oxidant-antioxidant balance is important in the pathogenesis of CS-induced ALI and suggests lung protective effects of GSE treatment in the mouse.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

LC/UV/MS analysis of GSE. A symmetry RP-18 column using a methanol-water with 0.5% of formic acid by 25 min was used. The detection was performed at 210, 254 and 540 nm. Flow rate was 1 mL/min. The peaks and molecular representations correspond to peonidin-3-O-glucoside (1), petunidin-3-O-glucoside (2), malvidin-3-O-glucoside (3), and malvidin-3-(6-O-trans-p-coumaryl)-5-O-diglicoside (4).
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f1-medscimonit-17-8-br187: LC/UV/MS analysis of GSE. A symmetry RP-18 column using a methanol-water with 0.5% of formic acid by 25 min was used. The detection was performed at 210, 254 and 540 nm. Flow rate was 1 mL/min. The peaks and molecular representations correspond to peonidin-3-O-glucoside (1), petunidin-3-O-glucoside (2), malvidin-3-O-glucoside (3), and malvidin-3-(6-O-trans-p-coumaryl)-5-O-diglicoside (4).

Mentions: In order to rapidly identify the active principles in grape skin, the extract was analysed by LC/UV/MS, with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) interface [32]. All compounds showed the same UV spectra in the LC/UV/DAD analysis characteristic of anthocyanins [33]. Four distinct compounds (named 1, 2, 3 and 4) presented the molecular ions at m/z 463 [M]+, 479 [M]+, 493 [M]+, and 801 [M]+, and all showed a similar fragmentation pattern (Figure 1). Compounds 1, 2 and 3 present 2 signals corresponding to the molecular ion [M+] and the fragment resulting from the loss of a glucose molecule [M-162]+, corresponding to the aglicon. In the case of compound 4, the MS spectra shows the loss of 1 glucose and a fragment corresponding to the loss of an p-coumarylglucoside moiety [M-308]+[34]. According to these data, the compounds were identified as peonidin-3-O-glucoside (1), petunidin-3-O-glucoside (2) malvidin-3-O-glucoside (3) and malvidin-3-(6-O-trans-p-coumaryl)-5-O-diglicoside (4), previously described in different species of Vitis spp. [34,35]. This hypothesis was confirmed by the comparison of retention time, UV and MS data in the LC/UV/MS analysis using commercial available standards. Compounds 1-3 are always present in grape extracts, generally in high concentrations, with the exception of 4, which can be found in low concentration [34].


Grape skin extract reduced pulmonary oxidative response in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

Pires KM, Valença SS, Resende ÂC, Porto LC, Queiroz EF, Moreira DD, de Moura RS - Med. Sci. Monit. (2011)

LC/UV/MS analysis of GSE. A symmetry RP-18 column using a methanol-water with 0.5% of formic acid by 25 min was used. The detection was performed at 210, 254 and 540 nm. Flow rate was 1 mL/min. The peaks and molecular representations correspond to peonidin-3-O-glucoside (1), petunidin-3-O-glucoside (2), malvidin-3-O-glucoside (3), and malvidin-3-(6-O-trans-p-coumaryl)-5-O-diglicoside (4).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539621&req=5

f1-medscimonit-17-8-br187: LC/UV/MS analysis of GSE. A symmetry RP-18 column using a methanol-water with 0.5% of formic acid by 25 min was used. The detection was performed at 210, 254 and 540 nm. Flow rate was 1 mL/min. The peaks and molecular representations correspond to peonidin-3-O-glucoside (1), petunidin-3-O-glucoside (2), malvidin-3-O-glucoside (3), and malvidin-3-(6-O-trans-p-coumaryl)-5-O-diglicoside (4).
Mentions: In order to rapidly identify the active principles in grape skin, the extract was analysed by LC/UV/MS, with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) interface [32]. All compounds showed the same UV spectra in the LC/UV/DAD analysis characteristic of anthocyanins [33]. Four distinct compounds (named 1, 2, 3 and 4) presented the molecular ions at m/z 463 [M]+, 479 [M]+, 493 [M]+, and 801 [M]+, and all showed a similar fragmentation pattern (Figure 1). Compounds 1, 2 and 3 present 2 signals corresponding to the molecular ion [M+] and the fragment resulting from the loss of a glucose molecule [M-162]+, corresponding to the aglicon. In the case of compound 4, the MS spectra shows the loss of 1 glucose and a fragment corresponding to the loss of an p-coumarylglucoside moiety [M-308]+[34]. According to these data, the compounds were identified as peonidin-3-O-glucoside (1), petunidin-3-O-glucoside (2) malvidin-3-O-glucoside (3) and malvidin-3-(6-O-trans-p-coumaryl)-5-O-diglicoside (4), previously described in different species of Vitis spp. [34,35]. This hypothesis was confirmed by the comparison of retention time, UV and MS data in the LC/UV/MS analysis using commercial available standards. Compounds 1-3 are always present in grape extracts, generally in high concentrations, with the exception of 4, which can be found in low concentration [34].

Bottom Line: In addition, we used a separate group treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO inhibitor) to confirm nitric oxide (NO) involvement in GSE effects.This is associated with decreased MMP-9 activity, decreased number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of lipid peroxidation.Our results indicate that beneficial effects of GSE are NO-dependent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Cancer Laboratory - ICB/CCS/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cigarette smoke (CS) is known to be one of the major sources of oxidants in the lungs. We postulated that acute administration of GSE (grape skin extract) would either reduce or protect the ALI (acute lung inflammation) produced by CS via NO release.

Material/methods: We adopted a nutritional approach by investigating the inflammatory cells, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity, and oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase - SOD; catalase - CAT; glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and malondialdehyde - MDA - levels) that play a role in the development of acute lung inflammation (ALI). Therefore, we tested an orally active antioxidant produced from grape skin manipulation (grape skin extract - GSE), in mice exposed to CS from 6 cigarettes a day for 5 days. In addition, we used a separate group treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO inhibitor) to confirm nitric oxide (NO) involvement in GSE effects.

Results: We showed for the first time that administration of GSE inhibited ALI and oxidative damage induced by CS. This is associated with decreased MMP-9 activity, decreased number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that beneficial effects of GSE are NO-dependent.

Conclusions: The study indicates that alteration of the oxidant-antioxidant balance is important in the pathogenesis of CS-induced ALI and suggests lung protective effects of GSE treatment in the mouse.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus