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A comparison of pain level and entropy changes following core stability exercise intervention.

Lee T, Kim YH, Sung PS - Med. Sci. Monit. (2011)

Bottom Line: Pain level decreased significantly for all subjects (F=25.29, p=0.001), but there was no difference between groups (F=0.42, p=0.52).The entropy level decreased in both thoracic ES muscles following intervention in the exercise group, while remaining the same in the control group.In addition, the results also suggested that complexity is related to muscle fatigue, which corresponds to the values of entropy between groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Healthcare Management, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: As reported in our previous studies, the complexity of physiologic time series is a sensitive measure of muscle fatigability. This study compared the differences between 2 different analyses following 4 weeks of core stability exercises (CSE) in subjects with and without chronic low back pain (LBP). We examined whether the observed Shannon (information) entropy, as compared with median frequency (MF), was able to differentiate fatigability of the thoracic and lumbar parts of the erector spinae (ES) muscles following the intervention.

Material/methods: In total, 32 subjects participated in this study. There were 13 subjects in the CSE intervention group (average age 50.4 ± 9.1 years) and 19 subjects in the control group (average age 46.6 ± 9.1 years). The CSE group performed the specific exercise intervention, but the control group was asked to maintain their current activity and/or exercise levels. The endurance of the back muscles was determined by using a modified version of the isometric fatigue test as originally introduced by Sorensen.

Results: Pain level decreased significantly for all subjects (F=25.29, p=0.001), but there was no difference between groups (F=0.42, p=0.52). The MF was not different between groups following treatment (F=0.81, p=0.37). Although there was no entropy level changes following treatment (F=0.01, p=0.93), the interactions between muscles and groups following treatment were significant (F=7.25, p=0.01). The entropy level decreased in both thoracic ES muscles following intervention in the exercise group, while remaining the same in the control group.

Conclusions: Although the change in pain level was not different between groups, the Shannon entropy measure more sensitively differentiated the exercise intervention than did MF. In addition, the results also suggested that complexity is related to muscle fatigue, which corresponds to the values of entropy between groups. Further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of nonlinear time series of EMG data for fatigability.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The median frequency (MF) measurements for thoracic and lumbar ES muscles. There was no change in the MF following treatment (F=0.81, p=0.37); however, there were significant differences among the muscles (F=39.36, p=0.0001). Both sides of the LES muscles revealed significantly higher MF values compared with the other muscles. (R: right, L: left, TES: thoracic erector spinae muscle, LES: lumbar erector spinae muscle).
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f4-medscimonit-17-7-cr362: The median frequency (MF) measurements for thoracic and lumbar ES muscles. There was no change in the MF following treatment (F=0.81, p=0.37); however, there were significant differences among the muscles (F=39.36, p=0.0001). Both sides of the LES muscles revealed significantly higher MF values compared with the other muscles. (R: right, L: left, TES: thoracic erector spinae muscle, LES: lumbar erector spinae muscle).

Mentions: Figure 4 indicates the MF measurements for the thoracic and lumbar ES muscles. There was no MF change following treatment (F=0.81, p=0.37); however, there were significant MF differences among muscles (F=39.36, p=0.0001). Both sides of the lumbar ES muscles revealed significantly higher MF values compared with the other muscles. Prior to the intervention, the MF of the right thoracic ES muscle was lower (75.33±14.94 for CSE group vs. 81.22±15.36 for control group). However, following the intervention, the MF of the right thoracic ES muscle was higher (88.14±22.13 for CSE group vs. 88.55±20.10 for control group). The MF of the left thoracic ES muscle prior to the intervention was lower (74.24±15.75 for CSE group vs. 74.86±17.71 for control group). However, following the intervention, the MF was higher (81.88±20.45 for CSE group vs. 80.31±15.93 for control group) for the left thoracic ES muscle.


A comparison of pain level and entropy changes following core stability exercise intervention.

Lee T, Kim YH, Sung PS - Med. Sci. Monit. (2011)

The median frequency (MF) measurements for thoracic and lumbar ES muscles. There was no change in the MF following treatment (F=0.81, p=0.37); however, there were significant differences among the muscles (F=39.36, p=0.0001). Both sides of the LES muscles revealed significantly higher MF values compared with the other muscles. (R: right, L: left, TES: thoracic erector spinae muscle, LES: lumbar erector spinae muscle).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539569&req=5

f4-medscimonit-17-7-cr362: The median frequency (MF) measurements for thoracic and lumbar ES muscles. There was no change in the MF following treatment (F=0.81, p=0.37); however, there were significant differences among the muscles (F=39.36, p=0.0001). Both sides of the LES muscles revealed significantly higher MF values compared with the other muscles. (R: right, L: left, TES: thoracic erector spinae muscle, LES: lumbar erector spinae muscle).
Mentions: Figure 4 indicates the MF measurements for the thoracic and lumbar ES muscles. There was no MF change following treatment (F=0.81, p=0.37); however, there were significant MF differences among muscles (F=39.36, p=0.0001). Both sides of the lumbar ES muscles revealed significantly higher MF values compared with the other muscles. Prior to the intervention, the MF of the right thoracic ES muscle was lower (75.33±14.94 for CSE group vs. 81.22±15.36 for control group). However, following the intervention, the MF of the right thoracic ES muscle was higher (88.14±22.13 for CSE group vs. 88.55±20.10 for control group). The MF of the left thoracic ES muscle prior to the intervention was lower (74.24±15.75 for CSE group vs. 74.86±17.71 for control group). However, following the intervention, the MF was higher (81.88±20.45 for CSE group vs. 80.31±15.93 for control group) for the left thoracic ES muscle.

Bottom Line: Pain level decreased significantly for all subjects (F=25.29, p=0.001), but there was no difference between groups (F=0.42, p=0.52).The entropy level decreased in both thoracic ES muscles following intervention in the exercise group, while remaining the same in the control group.In addition, the results also suggested that complexity is related to muscle fatigue, which corresponds to the values of entropy between groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Healthcare Management, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: As reported in our previous studies, the complexity of physiologic time series is a sensitive measure of muscle fatigability. This study compared the differences between 2 different analyses following 4 weeks of core stability exercises (CSE) in subjects with and without chronic low back pain (LBP). We examined whether the observed Shannon (information) entropy, as compared with median frequency (MF), was able to differentiate fatigability of the thoracic and lumbar parts of the erector spinae (ES) muscles following the intervention.

Material/methods: In total, 32 subjects participated in this study. There were 13 subjects in the CSE intervention group (average age 50.4 ± 9.1 years) and 19 subjects in the control group (average age 46.6 ± 9.1 years). The CSE group performed the specific exercise intervention, but the control group was asked to maintain their current activity and/or exercise levels. The endurance of the back muscles was determined by using a modified version of the isometric fatigue test as originally introduced by Sorensen.

Results: Pain level decreased significantly for all subjects (F=25.29, p=0.001), but there was no difference between groups (F=0.42, p=0.52). The MF was not different between groups following treatment (F=0.81, p=0.37). Although there was no entropy level changes following treatment (F=0.01, p=0.93), the interactions between muscles and groups following treatment were significant (F=7.25, p=0.01). The entropy level decreased in both thoracic ES muscles following intervention in the exercise group, while remaining the same in the control group.

Conclusions: Although the change in pain level was not different between groups, the Shannon entropy measure more sensitively differentiated the exercise intervention than did MF. In addition, the results also suggested that complexity is related to muscle fatigue, which corresponds to the values of entropy between groups. Further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of nonlinear time series of EMG data for fatigability.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus