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Endogenous proliferation after spinal cord injury in animal models.

McDonough A, Martínez-Cerdeño V - Stem Cells Int (2012)

Bottom Line: Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in motor and sensory deficits, the severity of which depends on the level and extent of the injury.All injury types result in an increased ependymal proliferation, but only in contusion and compression models is there a significant level of proliferation in the lateral regions of the spinal cord.Here we will discuss the potential of endogenous stem/progenitor cell manipulation as a therapeutic tool to treat SCI.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UC Davis, School of Medicine, 4400 V Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA ; Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Children Northern California, 2425 Stockton Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA ; Biochemistry, Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Graduate Group, UC Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

ABSTRACT
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in motor and sensory deficits, the severity of which depends on the level and extent of the injury. Animal models for SCI research include transection, contusion, and compression mouse models. In this paper we will discuss the endogenous stem cell response to SCI in animal models. All SCI animal models experience a similar peak of cell proliferation three days after injury; however, each specific type of injury promotes a specific and distinct stem cell response. For example, the transection model results in a strong and localized initial increase of proliferation, while in contusion and compression models, the initial level of proliferation is lower but encompasses the entire rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. All injury types result in an increased ependymal proliferation, but only in contusion and compression models is there a significant level of proliferation in the lateral regions of the spinal cord. Finally, the fate of newly generated cells varies from a mainly oligodendrocyte fate in contusion and compression to a mostly astrocyte fate in the transection model. Here we will discuss the potential of endogenous stem/progenitor cell manipulation as a therapeutic tool to treat SCI.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Qualitative summary of the features of the three types of animal models of SCI. Diagrams were created based on the references listed in Table 1. (a) Examples of transection injuries include dorsal hemisections (left), lateral hemisections (right), and complete transection (bottom). Proliferation peaks at 3 dpi and tapers off by 9 dpi. The mitotic response to injury is localized to the epicenter. Transection injuries are characterized by daughter cells acquiring astrocyte and macrophage/microglia fates. These cell types migrate to the region of injury. Depicted in the two right-most diagrams is proliferation and cell fate preferences in a dorsal hemisection injury. (b) A contusion injury typically results in a rim of spared white tissue. In response to injury, proliferation peaks at 3 dpi and is elevated for 14 days. Contusion injuries are characterized by a proliferative response that spans the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. Cell fate of mitotic cells trends towards the oligodendrocyte lineage, but astrocytes and microglia also represent a portion of dividing cells. (c) Compression injuries closely resemble contusion injuries both in the extent of the spinal cord affected and cell types generated.
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fig1: Qualitative summary of the features of the three types of animal models of SCI. Diagrams were created based on the references listed in Table 1. (a) Examples of transection injuries include dorsal hemisections (left), lateral hemisections (right), and complete transection (bottom). Proliferation peaks at 3 dpi and tapers off by 9 dpi. The mitotic response to injury is localized to the epicenter. Transection injuries are characterized by daughter cells acquiring astrocyte and macrophage/microglia fates. These cell types migrate to the region of injury. Depicted in the two right-most diagrams is proliferation and cell fate preferences in a dorsal hemisection injury. (b) A contusion injury typically results in a rim of spared white tissue. In response to injury, proliferation peaks at 3 dpi and is elevated for 14 days. Contusion injuries are characterized by a proliferative response that spans the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. Cell fate of mitotic cells trends towards the oligodendrocyte lineage, but astrocytes and microglia also represent a portion of dividing cells. (c) Compression injuries closely resemble contusion injuries both in the extent of the spinal cord affected and cell types generated.

Mentions: Transection SCI models are all forms of laceration to the spinal cord. Some common transection models include complete transection, in which a blade is passed through the entirety of the dura mater and spinal cord, dorsal or lateral hemisection, in which a blade is passed only half-way through the spinal cord (Figure 1(a)), and incision or minimal injury models, in which small nicks or cuts are made through the dura into the spinal cord. The pathological features of transection include a complete severance of axons in the area transected and the formation of a connective tissue mass and glial scar comprised of meningeal fibroblasts and astrocytes. Lacerations are rarely seen clinically, but may be present in instances of knife or gunshot wounds. Transection injuries are an attractive SCI model in experimental studies which aim to direct axonal growth through the glial scar [45].


Endogenous proliferation after spinal cord injury in animal models.

McDonough A, Martínez-Cerdeño V - Stem Cells Int (2012)

Qualitative summary of the features of the three types of animal models of SCI. Diagrams were created based on the references listed in Table 1. (a) Examples of transection injuries include dorsal hemisections (left), lateral hemisections (right), and complete transection (bottom). Proliferation peaks at 3 dpi and tapers off by 9 dpi. The mitotic response to injury is localized to the epicenter. Transection injuries are characterized by daughter cells acquiring astrocyte and macrophage/microglia fates. These cell types migrate to the region of injury. Depicted in the two right-most diagrams is proliferation and cell fate preferences in a dorsal hemisection injury. (b) A contusion injury typically results in a rim of spared white tissue. In response to injury, proliferation peaks at 3 dpi and is elevated for 14 days. Contusion injuries are characterized by a proliferative response that spans the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. Cell fate of mitotic cells trends towards the oligodendrocyte lineage, but astrocytes and microglia also represent a portion of dividing cells. (c) Compression injuries closely resemble contusion injuries both in the extent of the spinal cord affected and cell types generated.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539424&req=5

fig1: Qualitative summary of the features of the three types of animal models of SCI. Diagrams were created based on the references listed in Table 1. (a) Examples of transection injuries include dorsal hemisections (left), lateral hemisections (right), and complete transection (bottom). Proliferation peaks at 3 dpi and tapers off by 9 dpi. The mitotic response to injury is localized to the epicenter. Transection injuries are characterized by daughter cells acquiring astrocyte and macrophage/microglia fates. These cell types migrate to the region of injury. Depicted in the two right-most diagrams is proliferation and cell fate preferences in a dorsal hemisection injury. (b) A contusion injury typically results in a rim of spared white tissue. In response to injury, proliferation peaks at 3 dpi and is elevated for 14 days. Contusion injuries are characterized by a proliferative response that spans the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. Cell fate of mitotic cells trends towards the oligodendrocyte lineage, but astrocytes and microglia also represent a portion of dividing cells. (c) Compression injuries closely resemble contusion injuries both in the extent of the spinal cord affected and cell types generated.
Mentions: Transection SCI models are all forms of laceration to the spinal cord. Some common transection models include complete transection, in which a blade is passed through the entirety of the dura mater and spinal cord, dorsal or lateral hemisection, in which a blade is passed only half-way through the spinal cord (Figure 1(a)), and incision or minimal injury models, in which small nicks or cuts are made through the dura into the spinal cord. The pathological features of transection include a complete severance of axons in the area transected and the formation of a connective tissue mass and glial scar comprised of meningeal fibroblasts and astrocytes. Lacerations are rarely seen clinically, but may be present in instances of knife or gunshot wounds. Transection injuries are an attractive SCI model in experimental studies which aim to direct axonal growth through the glial scar [45].

Bottom Line: Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in motor and sensory deficits, the severity of which depends on the level and extent of the injury.All injury types result in an increased ependymal proliferation, but only in contusion and compression models is there a significant level of proliferation in the lateral regions of the spinal cord.Here we will discuss the potential of endogenous stem/progenitor cell manipulation as a therapeutic tool to treat SCI.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UC Davis, School of Medicine, 4400 V Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA ; Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Children Northern California, 2425 Stockton Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA ; Biochemistry, Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Graduate Group, UC Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

ABSTRACT
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in motor and sensory deficits, the severity of which depends on the level and extent of the injury. Animal models for SCI research include transection, contusion, and compression mouse models. In this paper we will discuss the endogenous stem cell response to SCI in animal models. All SCI animal models experience a similar peak of cell proliferation three days after injury; however, each specific type of injury promotes a specific and distinct stem cell response. For example, the transection model results in a strong and localized initial increase of proliferation, while in contusion and compression models, the initial level of proliferation is lower but encompasses the entire rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. All injury types result in an increased ependymal proliferation, but only in contusion and compression models is there a significant level of proliferation in the lateral regions of the spinal cord. Finally, the fate of newly generated cells varies from a mainly oligodendrocyte fate in contusion and compression to a mostly astrocyte fate in the transection model. Here we will discuss the potential of endogenous stem/progenitor cell manipulation as a therapeutic tool to treat SCI.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus